What Works in Pre-Primary Education Provision

A review of evidence on achieving equitable access and quality in low- and middle-income countries

A boy, 6, smiles holding his little black board after writing numbers on it.


The ‘What Works in Pre-Primary Education Provision’ report is based on an evidence review of 56 studies from 29 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It synthesizes the available evidence on pre-primary education interventions or programmes that aimed to improve access, in addition to learning and development outcomes for children aged three up to the start of primary school in LMICs. Moderating factors affecting the successful implementation of these programmes are also identified. Key recommendations to improve programme design and implementation at scale are provided across five areas: planning and budgeting, curriculum, workforce development, family and community engagement, and quality assurance. By addressing these recommendations, education stakeholders can strengthen pre-primary education provision and maximize its benefits for all children.

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Stefania Vindrola; Ghalia Ghawi; Bella Baghdasaryan; Divya Lata; Sharon Loza; Dita Nugroho
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