Coverage of Social Security Allowance in Nepal: Policy brief

A further analysis of the Nepal Multiple Indicator Survey (NMICS) 2019

A view of a mother feeding a child
UNICEF Nepal/2022/RUpadhayay


Ensuring economic equality, prosperity and social justice are among the pillars of the Constitution of Nepal 2015, which prescribes social security as one of the measures to be adopted to achieve the constitutional goal of equality and social justice. Article 43 of the Constitution guarantees social security as a fundamental right for poor and vulnerable citizens, including indigent citizens, single women, citizens with disabilities, children, those who cannot take care of themselves, and citizens belonging to tribes on the verge of extinction. Several legislative measures have been taken to implement this fundamental right. These measures include Social Security Act 2018, Contributory Social Security Act 2018, and the Local Government Operation Act 2017.

Understanding the coverage, reach and accessibility of SSAs is critical to improving their delivery and promoting the welfare and resilience of vulnerable populations. Given this, UNICEF Nepal commissioned a situational assessment on the coverage of SSAs. The study draws on nationally representative data from the Nepal Multi-Indicator Cluster Survey (NMICS), conducted in 2019 by the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) (Currently upgraded to Nation Statistics Office) with technical and financial support from UNICEF.

This summary report draws out key findings from the 2019 situational analysis on SSA to capture how Nepal’s five primary SSA mechanisms are functioning in practice. It presents evidence on the coverage, reaches, and accessibility of each scheme sets out findings that help to explain any gaps in coverage, and explores emerging evidence on the outcomes and impacts of SSAs. Finally, and importantly, the summary report draws out recommendations that emerge from the findings and can guide the Government of Nepal and development partners as they seek to improve the coverage and effectiveness of SSAs going forward.

cover of ssa summary report showing a child
European Union, UNICEF
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