By failing to invest in breastfeeding, we are failing mothers and their babies
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KINSHASA, 2 August 2017 - Babies and mothers worldwide failed by lack of investment in breastfeeding. New analysis shows an investment of US$4.70 per newborn could generate US$300 billion in economic gains by 2025.
No country in the world fully meets recommended standards for breastfeeding, according to a new report by UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the Global Breastfeeding Collective, a new initiative to increase global breastfeeding rates.
The Global Breastfeeding Scorecard, which evaluated 194 nations, found that only 40 per cent of children younger than six months are breastfed exclusively (given nothing but breast milk) and only 23 countries have exclusive breastfeeding rates above 60 per cent.
Evidence shows that breastfeeding has cognitive and health benefits for both infants and their mothers. It is especially critical during the first six months of life, helping prevent diarrhoea and pneumonia, two major causes of death in infants. Mothers who breastfeed have a reduced risk of ovarian and breast cancer, two leading causes of death among women.
“Breastfeeding gives babies the best possible start in life,” said Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of WHO. “Breastmilk works like a baby’s first vaccine, protecting infants from potentially deadly diseases and giving them all the nourishment they need to survive and thrive.”
The scorecard was released at the start of World Breastfeeding Week alongside a new analysis demonstrating that an annual investment of only US$4.70 per newborn is required to increase the global rate of exclusive breastfeeding among children under six months to 50 per cent by 2025.
Nurturing the Health and Wealth of Nations: The Investment Case for Breastfeeding, suggests that meeting this target could save the lives of 520,000 children under the age of five and potentially generate US$300 billion in economic gains over 10 years, as a result of reduced illness and health care costs and increased productivity.
“Breastfeeding is one of the most effective – and cost effective – investments nations can make in the health of their youngest members and the future health of their economies and societies,” said UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake. “By failing to invest in breastfeeding, we are failing mothers and their babies – and paying a double price: in lost lives and in lost opportunity.”
The investment case shows that in five of the world’s largest emerging economies—China, India, Indonesia, Mexico and Nigeria—the lack of investment in breastfeeding results in an estimated 236,000 child deaths per year and US$119 billion in economic losses.
Globally, investment in breastfeeding is far too low. Each year, governments in lower- and middle-income countries spend approximately US$250 million on breastfeeding programs; and donors provide only an additional US$85 million.
The Global Breastfeeding Collective is calling on countries to:
- Increase funding to raise breastfeeding rates from birth through two years.
- Fully implement the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and relevant World Health Assembly resolutions through strong legal measures that are enforced and independently monitored by organizations free from conflicts of interest.
- Enact paid family leave and workplace breastfeeding policies, building on the International Labour Organization’s maternity protection guidelines as a minimum requirement, including provisions for the informal sector.
- Implement the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding in maternity facilities, including providing breastmilk for sick and vulnerable newborns.
- Improve access to skilled breastfeeding counselling as part of comprehensive breastfeeding policies and programmes in health facilities.
- Strengthen links between health facilities and communities, and encourage community networks that protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.
- Strengthen monitoring systems that track the progress of policies, programmes, and funding towards achieving both national and global breastfeeding targets.
Breastfeeding is critical for the achievement of many of the Sustainable Development Goals. It improves nutrition (SDG2), prevents child mortality and decreases the risk of non-communicable diseases (SDG3), and supports cognitive development and education (SDG4). Breastfeeding is also an enabler to ending poverty, promoting economic growth and reducing inequalities.
In the DRC, almost half of all children under the age of five (43%) suffer from chronic malnutrition. Although 98% of children are breastfed, bad practices still exist concerning breastfeeding. The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS 2013-14) shows that 52% of new-borns are breastfed in the hour following their birth, and 48% of children are breastfed exclusively up to the age of 6 months. However, this leaves the other half of children who aren’t always enjoying the best start in life, and almost 66% of children continue to be breastfed up to 2 years of age. This doesn’t provide a good starting point for children under five in terms of their brain development and their growth, since after the ‘window of opportunity’ (the first 1000 days of a child’s life, starting from conception and going up to two years of age) malnutrition causes irreversible mental and physical damage.
The government of the DRC and its partners should work to increase financing for the implementation of policies, programmes and interventions concerning the promotion of the Feeding and Nutrition of Infants and Young Children, through healthcare visits (CPS), Community-Based Nutrition (CBN), Child Health Days (CHD) and Community-Based Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition
The contributions of different actors and sectors concerned with nutrition (Health, Water, Hygiene and Sanitation, Education, Agriculture, Social Protection, Gender) and private sectors are of great importance in order to protect, promote and support breastfeeding in the DRC; a high- impact intervention, which is highly cost-effective and contributes in the fight against chronic malnutrition.
UNICEF promotes the rights and wellbeing of every child, in everything we do. Together with our partners, we work in 190 countries and territories to translate that commitment into practical action, focusing special effort on reaching the most vulnerable and excluded children, to the benefit of all children, everywhere.