Ukraine two years: Children in frontline areas forced to spend up to 5,000 hours – equivalent to nearly 7 months - sheltering underground

Three-quarters of children and young people aged 14 to 34 recently reported needing emotional or psychological support

23 February 2024
Doi ani de război în Ucraina

GENEVA/KYIV, 23 February 2024 – Children in cities in Ukraine’s frontline areas have been forced to spend between 3,000 and 5,000 hours – equivalent to between four and almost 7 months – sheltering in basements and underground metro stations over the past two years, as air raid alerts sound above.  

Since the war escalated in February 2022, relentless attacks – resulting in around 3,500 air raid alerts in the Zaporizhzhia and Kharkiv regions and nearly 6,200 in the Donetsk region – have had a devastating impact on children’s mental health and ability to effectively learn.  

The winter months have been particularly horrific for children, with thousands sheltering in cold, damp basements as an escalation of attacks left many families without heating, access to water and electricity. 

“The war in Ukraine has shattered childhoods and wreaked havoc on children’s mental health and ability to learn,” said UNICEF Executive Director Catherine Russell. “Children have experienced two years of violence, isolation, separation from families, loss of loved ones, displacement and disrupted schooling and healthcare. They need this nightmare to end.” 

“The continued shelling leaves little opportunity for Ukraine’s children to recover from the distress and trauma associated with attacks. Every siren and explosion bring further anxiety. Education is a pillar of hope, opportunity and stability in children’s lives, but it continues to be disrupted or out of reach for millions of Ukraine’s children.”  

The psychological impacts of war among children are widespread. According to survey data, half of 13- to 15-year-olds have trouble sleeping, and 1 in 5 have intrusive thoughts and flashbacks – typical manifestations of post-traumatic stress disorder. Three-quarters of children and young people aged 14 to 34 recently report needing emotional or psychological support. However, less than a third sought help.  

Parents across Ukraine report elevated levels of anxiety, excessive fear, phobias and sadness, and decreased engagement in school, sensitivity to loud noises, and sleep troubles among children. At a time when parental support is needed most, half of parents surveyed report that they are struggling to support their children. 

Across the country, 40 per cent of Ukraine’s children cannot access continuous education due to a lack of facilities. In areas nearer to the frontline, half of school-age children are unable to access education. Latest data show that the scale of learning gaps seen in 2022 compared to 2018 is equivalent to two years loss in reading and one year loss in maths. 

Since the escalation of the war two years ago, UNICEF expanded its work in Ukraine and is currently present in Kyiv, Lviv, Odesa, Dnipro, Poltava, Mykolaiv, and Kharkiv to provide humanitarian assistance and critical support to children and families.  

UNICEF’s work in Ukraine is focused on ensuring children have access to health care, immunisation, nutrition support, protection, education, safe water and sanitation, social protection, and mental health and psychosocial support.  

In refugee hosting countries, UNICEF works with governments, municipalities and local partners to strengthen national systems that provide refugee children and marginalized children from host communities with quality education, health care and protection services.  

“Humanitarian principles, international humanitarian law and international human rights law must be respected. Children need a chance to recover, and the best way to do that is by ending this war,” said Russell. 


Notes for editors: 

UNICEF Global Spokesperson James Elder is currently in Ukraine. To schedule interviews please send a request via the information shared below. 

Data on the duration and frequency of air raid alerts can be found here.  

Download multimedia content here. 

UNICEF works in some of the world’s toughest places, to reach the world’s most disadvantaged children. Across more than 190 countries and territories, we work for every child, everywhere, to build a better world for everyone. 

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For more information, please contact: 

Georgina Diallo, UNICEF Europe and Central Asia Regional Office,, +41 763606814  

Damian Rance, UNICEF Ukraine,  

Joe English, UNICEF New York, +1 917 893 0692   

Media contacts

Angela Munteanu
Communication Officer
UNICEF Moldova
Tel: + 373 22 26 91 53


UNICEF promotes the rights and wellbeing of every child, in everything we do. Together with our partners, we work in 190 countries and territories to translate that commitment into practical action, focusing special effort on reaching the most vulnerable and excluded children, to the benefit of all children, everywhere.

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