Maternal nutrition in Indonesia

Landscape analysis and recommendations

A mother breastfeed her baby


Maternal nutrition starts from preconception, carries through the ante and postpartum periods and continues throughout the reproductive period and the transformative years from the foetal stage to adolescence. Indonesia has a high prevalence of maternal malnutrition coupled with high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality. According to Riskesdas 2018, 1 in 2 pregnant women are anaemic, 1 in 6 are thin, 1 in 3 are short stature. Many maternal health programs have been implemented in Indonesia, including routine iron and folic acid (IFA) and postpartum vitamin A supplementation, supplementary feeding for undernourished pregnant women and nutrition education and counselling. It is important to periodically review these programs to ensure alignment with the most up to date evidence and global recommendations, to address barriers and bottlenecks and to adjust programming for maximum impact.

Against the backdrop, this landscape analysis seeks to better understand the current state of maternal nutrition programs in Indonesia. It aims to provide a systematic identification of barriers – from the policy level to program implementation – of maternal nutrition interventions in Indonesia, and their alignment with the 2016 WHO recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience (as well as the relevant WHO nutrition recommendations for menstruating women and postpartum women). Additionally, the analysis also aims to understand the direct and indirect impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the preparedness of the health systems in dealing with uncertainties due to the impact of the pandemic. Findings are summarized according to the intended beneficiary during three distinct stages: before pregnancy (adolescent girls and women of reproductive age); during pregnancy (pregnant women); and after pregnancy (postpartum women) and recommendations were provided as a set of priority (short-term), medium-term and long-term actions.

Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia and UNICEF
Publication date
English, Indonesian

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