Providing quality education for all
Afghanistan’s education system has been devastated by more than three decades of sustained conflict. For many of the country’s children, completing primary school remains a distant dream – especially in rural areas and for girls – despite recent progress in raising enrolment.
In the poorest and remote areas of the country, enrolment levels vary extensively and girls still lack equal access.
An estimated 3.7 million children are out-of-school in Afghanistan – 60% of them are girls.
The underlining reasons for low girls’ enrolment is insecurity and traditional norms and practices related to girls’ and women’s role in the society. Other reasons can be explained in part by a lack of female teachers, especially in rural schools. Only 16 per cent of Afghanistan’s schools are girls-only, and many of them lack proper sanitation facilities, which further hinders attendance. Certain sociocultural factors and traditional beliefs also undermine girls’ education. Girls continue to marry very young – 17 per cent before their 15th birthday.
In some parts of the country, a shortage of schools and insufficient transportation are the main obstacles to education – a long walk to school means fewer children go. Geographical barriers, especially in mountainous areas, also make it hard for children to reach the classroom. Once children do make it, they often receive a lower quality of education because only 48 per cent of their teachers have the minimum academic qualifications (equivalent to an Associate Degree).
The socio-political and humanitarian crises that Afghanistan faces critically affect a fragile education system. Natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, and landslides exacerbate the situation for all children. These factors raise parental concerns about safety and can prevent them from sending their children to school.
A strong education system is key to getting more children in school, keeping them there, and helping them to become healthy and responsible citizens. Each year of schooling increases future wages on average by 3.9%. Working at the national, provincial, community levels in close collaboration with the Ministry of Education and other partners, our support focuses on the most vulnerable people in disadvantaged areas, particularly girls, to combat the lack of learning caused by poverty, discrimination and conflict.
A girl’s education is not only a moral imperative but an economic necessity.
More children in school
Access to education is a right for every child. UNICEF has worked with the government and partners for decades to increase the number of children going to school.
UNICEF focuses on the enrolment and retention of the most vulnerable children, specifically those who are out of school, and girls. We support the formal school system and the government’s Community-Based Education (CBE) programme, establishing Community-Based Schools and Accelerated Learning Centres within a three-kilometre range of each child’s community. We help identify alternative pathways to learning and increase education opportunities for the hardest-to-reach. The vision for the coming years is to enroll around 50 per cent of the out-of-school children, which is around 1.7 million children by mobilizing support to the CBE Investment case.
Improving quality education
UNICEF works with the Ministry of Education and other partners to improve the quality of education, build better education systems, and support environments that are conducive to learning and development.
The government of Afghanistan has adopted an approach, which focuses on inclusiveness, child-centred learning and a safe, healthy, and protective learning environment with active community participation. UNICEF also helps the Ministry of Education in its efforts to develop a National Assessment Framework for the primary education system, linked to a national qualification framework.
Improving institutional capacity
UNICEF advocates with the highest levels of Government and provides continuous technical and financial support to the Ministry Education to improve management practices and coordination for partnership at all levels.
At the national level, UNICEF supports the development and roll-out of new policies, strategies, and programmes with a special focus on out-of-school children, girls’ education, and early childhood development. At the community level, UNICEF works closely with School Management Shuras (consultative councils), parents, community members, decision-makers, and children themselves to improve community school management.
Emergency preparedness and response
UNICEF provides emergency education to ensure children continue going to school during disasters and conflicts. UNICEF and Save the Children co-lead the Education in Emergencies Working Group which supports the Ministry of Education in its disaster response. UNICEF focuses on promoting social cohesion and a culture of peace in local communities, especially in regions where fear and violence persist.
Reports and Data
A Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children https://www.unicef.org/afghanistan/reports/global-initiative-out-school-children
Afghanistan – Education Equity Profile for Adolescent Girls: Barriers to education for adolescent girls in Afghanistan, and policies and strategies to address them https://www.unicef.org/rosa/reports/afghanistan-education-equity-profile-adolescent-girls.