Impact Evaluation of the Sanitation Programme (2017)

Analysis on the impact of UNICEF's rural sanitation work with the Government, supported by UK aid funding

Students queue to wash their hands


To address the high burden of sanitation and hygiene related morbidity and mortality, especially in rural areas of the country, the Zambian government through the Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MoLGH), in partnership with UNICEF, the Department for International Development (DFID), and other cooperating partners, is implementing the Zambia Sanitation and Hygiene Program (ZSHP).

The purpose of the ZSHP has been to contribute to the achievement of the MDG 7c (and SDG 6) targets in Zambia, with an additional 3 million people consistently using improved sanitation facilities and adopting related hygiene practices (such as hand washing with soap or ash).

ZSHP features community led total sanitation (CLTS) as core activity, but it also comprises a package of activities including supporting enabling environments, sanitation marketing, school-led total sanitation (SLTS), and national behavior change communication. The programme was intended to be implemented in 65 rural districts in eight of the ten provinces in Zambia. The two main targets of ZHSP were to increase the use of improved sanitation facilities1 from an estimated 46% to 75% and contribute to the reduction of diarrheal diseases amongst children from an estimated 15% to 12%.

The Boston University (BU) Center for Global Health and Development (CGHD) was tasked to conduct an impact evaluation of the programme. The objective was to measure the key performance, impact, outcome and input indicators to track changes over time, and to examine and explain the extent the program has contributed to the observed impact, outcome and input indicators. This report presents the impact evaluation of ZSHP.

Cover page with a photo of a tippy tap outside an African hut



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