Glossary: A -- Ç

Average Annual Rate of Increase (AARI)
The rate of progress is measured by calculating the average annual rate of increase (AARI) in the proportion of the population with at least primary education. Data from household surveys (DHS and MICS) were used to estimate the likelihood of school attendance (at primary, secondary or higher level) in different age groups; the AARI is the average of the observed change of this likelihood. Türkçe
Baby-friendly Hospitals Initiative, The (BFHI)
In 1991, the Ministry of Health launched the Baby-friendly Hospitals Initiative (BFHI) in Turkey with the support of WHO and UNICEF. The BFHI is a global network which aims to give every baby the best possible start in life through the creation of a healthcare environment where breastfeeding is the norm, thus helping to reduce levels of infant morbidity and infant mortality worldwide. BFHI hospitals follow a simple plan for the promotion of breastfeeding: every facility which provides maternity services and care for the newborn is encouraged to follow the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Türkçe
Baccille Calmette Guérin Vaccine (BCG)
Baccille Calmette Guérin (BCG) contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis. Originally isolated from a cow with tuberculosis by Calmette and Guérin at the Institute Pasteur, Paris, BCG was first used as a vaccine to protect humans from tuberculosis in 1921. The vaccine has been widely used since then to protect children throughout the world from tuberculosis. Today, it is estimated that more than 1 billion people have received BCG. Türkçe
Central and Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS)
According to the UNICEF CEE/CIS website, economic and demographic trends are positive for much of the region. Ideally, they will help open the way to improving services and support for children, and to protecting their rights. However, HIV/AIDS is spreading faster in the CEE/CIS and Baltics Region -- particularly Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine -- than anywhere else in the world. The CEE/CIS Region includes Albania; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; The Republic of Moldova; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia and Montenegro; Tajikistan; The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Türkçe
Children First
The current climate of political stability, economic growth and social and institutional change has created an unprecedented opportunity to fulfil the promise of Say Yes for Children by strengthening the protective environment for children, especially the disadvantaged, and accelerating progress in addressing issues such as gender and social inequality. The Government, UNICEF and NGOs will achieve this with the support of the EU over a period of 27 months from August 2005 with a new child protection project, Towards Good Governance, Protection and Justice for Children in Turkey or Children First. Read more about Children First. Türkçe
Child-friendly Schools (CFS)
According to UNICEF: a child-friendly school reflects a quality environment. A child-friendly school regards education as every child’s right and helps to monitor the rights and well-being of every child in the community. A child-friendly school acts in the interests of the ‘whole’ child, which includes his or her health, nutrition and overall well-being. A child-friendly school cares about what happens to children in their families and communities before they enter school and after they leave it. Türkçe
Children in Need of Special Protection Measures (CINSPM)
According to SHÇEK’s definition of Law No. 2828 the child in need of protection is a child whose physical, spiritual and moral development or personal safety is endangered, and who does not have a mother/father or both, and information regarding his/her parents’ whereabouts are unknown or has been abandoned by them, and who is neglected and abused. Türkçe
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, The (CEDAW)
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an international bill of rights for women. The Convention defines discrimination against women as …any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field. Türkçe
Convention on the Rights of the Child, The (CRC)
UNICEF is guided by the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the most universally accepted human rights instrument in history. Uniquely placing children centre-stage, the CRC spells out the basic human rights which children everywhere have without discrimination. It is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. Türkçe
Country Programme Action Plan (CPAP)
The Country Programme Action Plan (CPAP) is a unique agreement between UNICEF and the Turkish Government proposing a range of projects to improve health and education facilities throughout Turkey. Two key outcomes for children are that they are nurtured in a caring environment, physically healthy, mentally alert, socially stimulated and able to learn, and that all children have access to a good quality basic education. The CPAP runs in five-year cycles. Türkçe
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