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Nearly 600 million children will live in areas with extremely limited water resources by 2040 - UNICEF

Poorest children will be most affected as climate change worsens
 an ongoing water crisis

DILI, Timor-Leste/New York, 22 March 2017 – Some 600 million children – or 1 in 4 children worldwide – will be living in areas with extremely limited water resources by 2040, according to a UNICEF report released on World Water Day.

The report, Thirsting for a Future: Water and children in a changing climate, looks at the  threats to children’s lives and wellbeing caused by depleted sources of safe water and the ways climate change will intensify these risks in coming years.

“Water is elemental; without it, nothing can grow. But around the world, millions of children lack access to safe water -- endangering their lives, undermining their health, and jeopardizing their futures. This crisis will only grow unless we take collective action now,” said UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake.

According to the report, 36 countries are currently facing extremely high levels of water stress, which occurs when demand for water far exceeds the renewable supply available. Warmer temperatures, rising sea levels, increased floods, droughts and melting ice affect the quality and availability of water as well as sanitation systems.

The World Resource Institute’s Aqueduct project, which informed the findings of the report, indicates that Timor-Leste is among the 36 countries facing water stress .Water stress refers to the demand for water relative to its renewable supply.

The Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Groundwater Resources in Timor-Leste Summary report, 2012 mentioned that the access to clean water throughout much of Timor-Leste is inherently vulnerable due to the widespread reliance on rain-fed water sources such as springs and wells. The current access to clean water at the community, school, health centre and household level is likely at risk by more frequent and severe climate-induced drought conditions and longer, dry seasons.

In addition, according to the National Adaptation Programme of Action on Climate Change, Timor-Leste, 2010 report, El Niño events are a substantial and serious threat to water and food access in many communities across the country and can result in the consumption of unsafe water, less and fewer nutritious foods, and undermine sanitation and hygiene practices. All these will have severe impact on children. According to the Population and Housing Census 2015, currently, 1 out of 4 people do not have access to safe water, and disparities between urban and rural areas are quite high as approximately 32 per cent of rural population do not have access to safe water compared to 8.5 per cent people living in urban areas.

Population growth, increased water consumption, and higher demand for water largely due to industrialization and urbanization are draining water resources worldwide. Conflicts in many parts of the world also threaten children’s access to safe water. 

All of these factors force children to use unsafe water, which exposes them to potentially deadly diseases like cholera and diarrhoea. Many children in drought-affected areas spend hours every day collecting water, missing out on a chance to go to school. Girls are especially vulnerable to attack during these times.

The poorest and most vulnerable children will be most impacted by an increase in water stress, the report says, as millions of them already live in areas with low access to safe water and sanitation.

The report also notes that:
• Up to 663 million people globally do not have access to adequate water sources and 946 million people practice open defecation.
• Over 800 children under the age of five die every day from diarrhoea linked to inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene;
• Globally, women and girls spend 200 million hours collecting water every day.

The impact of climate change on water sources is not inevitable, UNICEF says. The report concludes with a series of recommendations that can help curb the impact of climate change on the lives of children. Such measures include:
• Governments need to plan for changes in water availability and demand in the coming years; Above all, it means prioritizing the most vulnerable children’s access to safe water above other water needs to maximize social and health outcomes.
• Climate risks should be integrated into all water and sanitation-related policies and services, and investments should to target high-risk populations.
• Businesses need to work with communities to prevent contamination and depletion of safe water sources.
• Communities themselves should explore ways to diversify water sources and to increase their capacity to store water safely.

“In a changing climate, we must change the way we work to reach those who are most vulnerable. One of the most effective ways we can do that is safeguarding their access to safe water,” Lake said.

Notes to Editors:
Thirsting for a Future: Water and children in a dangerous climate is the third in a series of reports issued by UNICEF on the impact of climate change on and its effect on the lives of children. The reports include recommendations for how to minimize these impacts and help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals on climate action. The other reports are Clear the Air for Children and Unless We Act Now.

UNICEF promotes the rights and wellbeing of every child, in everything we do.  Together with our partners, we work in 190 countries and territories to translate that commitment into practical action, focusing special effort on reaching the most vulnerable and excluded children, to the benefit of all children, everywhere.

For more information about UNICEF and its work for children, visit
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For more information, please contact:
Antonio Gomes, Communication Officer, UNICEF Timor-Leste (Tetum queries)
HP: +670-7232441 Email:

Arifa S. Sharmin, Communication Specialist, Communication Section, UNICEF Timor-Leste
HP: +670-7231103 Email: (English queries)

Yemi Lufadeju, UNICEF New York, + 121 326 7029, + 1 917-213-4034



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