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Toolkit on Diversion and Alternatives to Detention

Project Examples

• Summary table
• Diversion
• Alternatives
• Diversion & alternatives (within the same project)
• Other projects of interest
• Resources containing reference to multiple projects
Summary table
Full summary table of diversion and alternatives project examples from around the world [Word 272kb]
Resource created for this toolkit. 
Sample project descriptions for diversion [Word 56kb]
Resource created for this toolkit.

South Africa - 'NICRO Diversion Options', L.M. Muntingh and R. Shapiro (eds), National Institute for Crime Prevention and the Rehabilitation of Offenders (NICRO), 1997 [Pdf 174kb]
Detailed, step by step information on each of the 5 NICRO diversion programmes (Youth Empowerment Scheme (YES), Pre-Trial Community Service, Victim-Offender Mediation, Family Group Conferencing & The Journey).

Ireland - 'Garda [Police] Juvenile Diversion Programme', Public Service Information provided by the Citizens' Information Board (internet), updated August 2009 [Word 43kb]
Simple description of Ireland's police diversion programme, including: background; responsibilities; process; admission criteria; child protection considerations; different types of caution, supervision and conferences.

Namibia - 'Case Study: 'Diversion' Programmes in Namibia', Doris Roos, Coordinator of the Legal Assistance Centre's Juvenile Justice Programme - presentation at the Eighth Innocenti Global Seminar: 'Children Involved with the System of Juvenile Justice', 12 - 22 October 1997 [Word 49kb]
Description of diversion in Namibia as of 1997 [please note that this document is old and the situation on the ground is likely to have changed].

'Introduction of the restorative justice concept and victim-offender mediation practice in Serbia and Montenegro within the 'Children’s Chance for Change' project – A juvenile justice reform initiative in Serbia and Montenegro', UNICEF [no date - but after 2006] [Pdf 28kb]
Brief overview of the legislative and policy context and a diversion pilot project, with a particular focus on the mediation component. Includes results and challenges.
Sample project descriptions for alternatives to detention [Word 83kb]
Resource created for this toolkit.

Argentina: 'Support System for Protected Adolescents - La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)', UNICEF, 2008 [Pdf 1.2Mb]
Detailed outline of a project for deinstitutionalisation / social reinsertion (to promote early release from detention) - including lessons learned and recommendations for replication. (Has been summarised in the toolkit ‘project examples’ matrix).
Diversion & alternatives (within the same project)
Tajikistan: Guide to the Establishment and Implementation of the Juvenile Justice Alternatives Project, Children's Legal Centre and UNICEF [Word 605kb]
Very useful and easy to read documentation of the Tajikistan JJAP which has been replicated in other countries. Contains, amongst other things, sample forms, structure diagrams and roles and responsibilities for different actors.

Tajikistan - 'Children’s centres provide an alternative approach to juvenile justice in Tajikistan', UNICEF media release, July 2007 [Word 62kb]
UNICEF media release describing the Tajikistan 'Juvenile Justice Alternatives Project'.

USA - New York City, 'Project Zero' summary, NYC Department of Probation [no date] [Pdf 72kb]
Summary of diversion and alternatives projects implemented by the Probation Department in NYC. Outlines project objectives, methodology and success.

‘Justice for Children: Diversion and Alternative Measures - Workshop Report, January 2009’, Child Protection Section, UNICEF Afghanistan [Pdf 541kb]
Report from workshop involving stakeholders from the 8 provinces involved in the diversion and alternatives pilot project (social workers, police & prosecutors). Includes: summary of key learning points, way forward in 2009, indicators to measure progress, social inquiry report format and flowchart, country background and informaiton on the Juvenile Code of Afghanistan, and case studies used for discussions.
Other projects of interest
Sample project descriptions for restorative justice [Word 74kb]
Resource created for this toolkit.

USA - 'Juvenile Holdover Programs', USA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration & American Probation and Parole Association [no date] [Word 1.29Mb]
Detailed information / manual on US 'Juvenile Holdover Programs' (short-term, temporary holding programs in either a secure, nonsecure, or a combination secure/nonsecure setting, e.g. whilst locating a caregiver, holding a youth pending an action in the investigation or court process, or providing a safe, temporary location for youth who do not meet detention criteria but are in need of a place to stay until other appropriate arrangements for their care can be completed). Although not strictly an 'alternative' to detention (as some holdover facilities are 'secure'), it nonetheless provides more 'child-friendly' options (compared to police stations and pre-trial detention facilities) when temporary detention is unavoidable. Includes chapters on: Overview of the program; Strategic Planning - Developing a Program Framework; Legal Issues; Defining a Target Population and Establishing an Admission Process; Program Design and Operations; Site and Facility Issues; Staffing and Staff Training; Assuring Your Success; Celebrating Your Success.
Resources containing reference to multiple projects
'Tough is not Enough: Getting Smart about Youth Crime - A review of research on what works to reduce offending by young people', Kaye L McLaren, New Zealand Ministry of Youth Affairs, 2000 [PDF 470kb]
Excellent meta-analysis of global research on children in conflict with the law to establish 'what works' and 'what doesn't work'. [Note this document has been used as a key resource for the toolkit].

DRAFT: ‘Deconstructing the Pipeline: Using Efficacy and Effectiveness Data and Cost-Benefit Analyses to Reduce Minority Youth Incarceration’, David Osher et al., American Institutes for Research and Arizona State University, 2003 [Word 139kb]
Academic meta-analyis of US research in relation to recidivism and cost effectiveness of prevention, early intervention, diversion and other programmes for children in conflict wtih the law. Provides good project summaries and hard data on recidivism and cost. Narrative focus on over-representation of ethnic minorities in the system. [Please note that this is a draft paper only]. [Note this document has been used as a key resource for the toolkit]

'Justice for Children: Detention as a Last Resort - Innovative Initiatives in the East Asia and Pacific Region', UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office [no date] [Pdf 2.12Mb]
Chapter 3 on 'Diversion and restorative justice' contains 4 project examples: 1. Community-Based Prevention and Diversion Programme – Cebu City, Philippines; 2. Police ‘Youth Aid Diversion’ Project – New Zealand; 3. The Restorative Justice Programme – Palau; 4. Community-Based Programme and Services for Juveniles in Conflict with the Law – Quezon City,  Philippines.

'Juvenile Justice Systems: Good Practices in Latin America', UNICEF 2003 (English edition 2006) [Pdf 740kb]
Compilation of good practices ranging from law reform to detention centres. Includes 2 examples of diversion / alternatives programmes (Brazil & Guatemala - which have been summarised in the toolkit ‘project examples’ matrix).



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