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Base de datos de evaluación

Evaluation report

ZAM 1998/801: Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Peer Education Programs

Author: Hughes-d'Aeth, A.

Executive summary


The Government of Zambia's response is set out in its Strategic Plan 1994 - 1998. This elaborated a set of intervention strategies to ensure the reduction of HIV and STD transmission. Its main targets were children and out-of-school youths; women who are disempowered through low levels of literacy and/or social and economic dependence, which renders them vulnerable; and other high-risk groups (armed forces, prisoners, etc.).

Purpose / Objective

The purpose of the evaluation was:
- To provide a description of four UNICEF-assisted NGO peer education projects
- To appraise the project strategies
- To describe and assess the impact of IEC peer activities
- To identify training needs of NGOs, in order to increase the effectiveness of UNICEF's technical assistance
- To assess the relevance and appropriateness of UNICEF' support


The evaluation describes the HIV/AIDS projects of four NGOs:
Family Health Trust Anti-AIDS Project (UNICEF funds ZMK 59,065,000 from (1995-1997)
Kanyama Compound Project on AIDS (UNICEF paid project director for one year)
Kara Counseling and Training Trust (UNICEF-sponsored stafff or training courses)
Copperbelt Health Education Programme (UNICEF funds US$ 50,000)

There is no information given on the number of people reached by the projects.

The evaluation reviewed relevant documents, conducted interviews, and made on-site visits, including attending a training seminar. The consultant interviewed project coordinators, officers, peer educators, youth leaders, UNICEF officers, and staff in the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health and District Health Centres.

Key Findings and Conclusions

The projects were instrumental in raising awareness, in providing accurate information on the nature and spread of HIV/AIDS, and in providing psychological support to high risk groups. Moreover, they provided target groups with information on safe sex practice, with life-skills to cope with high-risk situations, and with a practical way to support behavioural change through condom distribution and information on use.

The efficiency of the NGOs programmes could be improved and their effectiveness in terms of impact on sexual behaviour change was sometimes uncertain. However, the NGO projects are important given the seriousness and urgency of the nature of the spread of HIV/AIDS, and there is need for the continued role and input of NGOs given the Government's over-stretched resources.

Importantly, the NGO staff and peer educators enabled people living with AIDS, their dependents, and the community at large to retain a measure of dignity in the face of the most appalling uncertainties and fear. The value of a cross-case evaluation analysis is that identified areas of best practice from one NGO can be recommended for implementation to other NGOs.


Targeting youths, women, gatekeepers has been appropriate but targeting to be more fine-tuned to pre-youth groups, pupils (especially girls) below grade 5, other high-risk women (e.g. low status women, amaules). Development of life-skills programmes and materials for younger age groups. Activities need to be structured, sequenced and developmental, and appropriately focused to target audience.

Information, education and communication work has been good but knowledge gaps to be filled in. Range of communication channels could be extended through use of alternative media (e.g. radio). Extending range of audience participation activities - drama, games, plays, etc.

Negotiation skills and assertiveness training on condom use by all NGOs. Condom supply to be improved and quality to be assured.

Greater focus on teacher coping skills by all NGOs.

All NGO members of staff to be appropriately trained and responsive to situations. Sensitisation of all persons dealing with clients seeking help, e.g. health workers.

Improved management skills. Improved networking and planning with the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, District Health Management Teams, etc. Feeding in best practice ideas.

Training in monitoring skills and techniques for central offices and coordinators. Qualitative indicator setting, collection and analysis. Emphasis on linking quantitative and qualitative data. Listing and standardisation of indicators. Inclusion of baselines for planning and tracking purposes.

Full report in PDF

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Report information





HIV/AIDS - Young People

UNICEF, Zambia Ministries of Health & Education


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