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The State of the World's Children 2004

Higher education

Dundar, Halil and Jennifer Haworth, 'Improving Women’s Access to Higher Education: A review of World Bank project experience', World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1993.
This paper evaluates the World Bank’s project experience in its work to improve women’s access to tertiary education. The authors conclude that the most successful approach for getting women into higher education requires the tailoring of educational programmes to the labour market. Interventions are most effective when a strong demand exists for educated women in the labour market alongside a high private demand for higher education, and when a clear link is demonstrated between educational programmes and labour market demands.

Mak, Grace, ed., 'Women, Education, and Development in Asia: Cross-national perspectives', Garland Publishing, New York and London, 1996.
Using case studies from 10 countries in South Asia, East Asia, and South-east Asia, this book explores the relationship between women’s historical situation in Asia and contemporary issues in education and employment. The book examines the link among development strategies, educational policies and women’s status, paying particular attention to higher education and its influence on women’s participation in both public and domestic life.

Subbarao, K., et al., 'Women in Higher Education: Progress, constraints, and promising initiatives', World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1994.
This research paper asks how women in developing countries fared in higher education enrolment since the 1970s and what helped women enrol. It finds that increased female enrolment is misleading in that women are well represented in humanities and vocational programmes only. It notes that there is a paucity of examples of successful interventions, yet it suggests multiple strategies to get women into higher education, such as linking higher education to employment opportunities.

Task Force on Higher Education and Society, World Bank, 'Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and promise', World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2000.
This publication analyses developing countries’ abilities to compete in the ‘knowledge economy’ and the ways in which sustainable development requires skills fostered by higher education. The report identifies major obstacles to higher education enrolment in developing nations and proposes solutions in areas that have historically received little attention, such as governance, science and technology research, and public interest and investment in secondary and higher education. This report includes a section devoted to women and other disadvantaged groups.

World Bank, 'Constructing Knowledge Societies: New challenges for tertiary education', World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2002.
This report investigates the contributions of higher education to economic growth and social progress in the developing world, establishing that participation in tertiary education is vital to the development of both communities and nations. The report documents persistent gender and class inequalities in enrolment and explores the role of the World Bank and other development agencies in helping to expand access to higher education.



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