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The State of the World's Children 2004

Education and health

Academy for Educational Development, 'Reducing Reproductive Health Barriers to Primary School Completion among Kenyan Girls', Population Communication Services.
This website describes a programme to improve girls’ enrolment and completion of primary school in Kenya. The main goal of the project is to reduce the reproductive health barriers, such as early marriage, pregnancy, lack of gender-appropriate facilities in schools, to primary school completion. The site outlines specific interventions used in communities to get and keep girls in school.
[External Web page]

Ainsworth, Martha, Kathleen Beegle and Godlike Koda, ‘The Impact of Adult Mortality on Primary School Enrollment in Northwestern Tanzania’, Africa Region Human Development, Working Paper Series, Africa Region, World Bank, March 2002.
This study measures the effect of adult deaths and orphan status on household decisions to enrol children in primary school in the Kagera region of Tanzania – the area hardest hit by HIV/AIDS at the time of the research. This longitudinal household survey identifies characteristics of children with the lowest primary school enrolment. It finds that young children aged 7 to 10 and maternal orphans are more likely to be kept out of school and suggests interventions for improving overall primary school enrolment.

Allen, J.P. et al., ‘Preventing Teen Pregnancy and Academic Failure: Experimental evaluation of a developmentally-based approach’, 'Child Development', vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 729-742.
The paper reports on the success of a school-based intervention in reducing teen pregnancy and academic failure. Teenagers were randomly assigned to the Teen Outreach Program, a volunteer programme in the United States designed to prevent adolescent behaviour problems, and compared to teenagers not enrolled. The authors found that participation in the Teen Outreach Program decreased the rates of teenage pregnancy and academic failure.

Cleland J. G. and J. K. Van Ginneken, ‘Maternal Education and Child Survival in Developing Countries: The search for pathways of influence’, 'Social Science and Medicine', vol. 27, no. 12, 1988, pp. 1357-68.
This paper assesses factors that might explain how a mother’s education influences the health and survival of her children. The authors suggest that the use of health-care services by educated mothers may explain the decrease in child mortality rates, but this hypothesis does not hold up when health-care systems are weak. They believe that the economic benefits of maternal education, and the health beliefs and practices of educated mothers are more likely to explain children’s improved health status and survival rates.

Cochrane, Susan H., Donald O’Hara and Joanna Leslie, ‘The Effects of Education on Health’, World Bank Staff Working Paper, no. 405, July 1980.
This study investigates the link between education and health by analysing such factors as the connection between mortality and per capita income, parental education and child nutritional status, and parental education and child mortality.

De Silva, Amala, et al., 'Investing in Maternal Health in Malaysia and Sri Lanka', World Bank, April 2003.
The study provides the first comprehensive, in-depth analysis of the factors that contributed to maternal mortality decline in Malaysia and Sri Lanka, two of very few developing countries that have succeeded in reducing this rate to levels comparable to many industrialized countries. It examines the importance of policies, expenditures in maternal health services and the use of trained midwives.

Elo, Irma, ‘Utilization of Maternal Health-Care Services in Peru: The role of women’s education’, 'Health Transition Review', vol. 2, no. 1, 1992.
This article explores the positive correlation between formal education and the use of prenatal care and delivery assistance in Peru, and investigates whether this maternal care improvement holds up regardless of mothers’ childhood background, socio-economic status and access to health-care services. The study’s objective is to inform health policy makers’ decisions regarding maternal health services and their understanding of education’s role in maternal and child survival.

Koblinsky, Marjorie A., ed., 'Reducing Maternal Mortality: Learning from Bolivia, China, Egypt, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica and Zimbabwe', World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2003.
This research examines new maternal health-care interventions and compares their efficiency and effectiveness to previous successful efforts to reduce maternal mortality in Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Through case studies, research and analysis of safe motherhood programmes in seven countries, the authors conclude that there are six factors that will lead to reduced maternal mortality rates.

LeVine, Robert A., et al., ‘Schooling and Maternal Behavior in a Mexican City: The effects on fertility and child survival’, The Population Council, Research Notes, no. 16, February 1987.
This study – part of a larger programme comparing schooling and fertility rates in five cultures – explores whether schooling actually influences women’s reproductive attitudes, and if so, how.

Monteith, Richard, et al., ‘Use of Maternal and Child Health Services and Immunization Coverage in Panama and Guatemala’, 'Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization', vol. 21, no. 1, 1987.
This bulletin reports on two surveys estimating the prevalence of contraception use as well as providing population-based data on the use of maternal and child health services, including immunization. The authors focus on three aspects of health services – antenatal care, well-baby-care and postpartum care.

Moya, Cecilia, 'Life Skills Approaches to Improving Youth’s Sexual and Reproductive Health', Advocates for Youth, Washington, D.C., 2002.
This is a review of several programmes that effectively teach life skills in the classroom. Life skills are designed not only to provide information but also to encourage interaction and decision-making, and shape attitudes and interpersonal skills. The goals are to promote sexual and reproductive health and to give young people the tools to make life-affirming decisions.

Okafor, C.B., ‘Availability and Use of Services for Maternal and Child Health Care in Rural Nigeria’, 'International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics', vol. 34, 1991, pp. 331-346.
This is an analysis of interviews conducted in four rural towns in Nigeria relating to the use of prenatal, delivery and post-natal services. It examines the relation of various socio-economic variables to the use of maternal health-care services.

Rajna, P.N., Ajay Kumar Mishra and S. Krishnamoorthy, ‘Impact of Maternal Education and Health Services on Child Mortality in Uttar Pradesh, India’, 'Asia-Pacific Population Journal', vol. 13, no. 2, June 1998.
This article begins with the acceptance of earlier findings that a mother’s education has the most profound effect on human development. It identifies the factors that contribute to maternal education’s influence on infant and child mortality through an analysis of data from Uttar Pradesh, one of India’s poorest states. The authors conclude that maternal education must be the long-term goal. But for now, investment in maternal health services is the priority.
[External Web page]

Save the Children, 'State of the World’s Mothers 2001', Westport, Connecticut, 2001.
Save the Children’s annual publication assesses mothers’ well-being throughout the developing world and identifies factors that will determine the well-being of the next generation of mothers and children. This issue advocates for increased investment in girls’ education because female literacy is essential for improving the lives of future generations. Save the Children supplements its report with statistical data including a girls’ investment index.

United Nations, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, 'Women’s Education and Fertility Behaviour: Recent evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys', United Nations, New York, 1995.
The study analyses data from 26 countries to update evidence on the correlation between female education and fertility. Reviewing the most recent internationally comparable data – the Demographic and Health Surveys – the report assesses whether improvement in women’s education has played a significant role in reducing fertility rates. The publication presents the data and methodology, an overview of women’s educational status in these countries, a review of relevant literature and empirical evidence on the relationship between education and fertility.



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