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The State of the World's Children 2004

Education, gender and economic development

Barro, Robert J., ‘Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries’, in 'Quarterly Journal of Economics', vol. 106, no. 2, MIT Press, May 1991.
This document chronicles the positive relationship between the 1960-1985 real per capita gross domestic product growth rate and the 1960 school-enrolment rates and the negative relation to 1960 level of real per capita gross domestic product. This illustrates that human development often enhances economic development as shown by the relationship among human capital, fertility rates, public investment and measures of political stability.

Beneria, Lourdes and Savitri Bisnath, eds., 'Gender and Development: Theoretical, empirical, and practical approaches', vols. I and II, Edward Elgar Publishing, London, 2001.
This is a series of essays on gender and development, with emphasis on economic analysis. Topics include conceptual and methodological approaches, statistical accounting of women’s work, issues related to the family, the household and ‘caring labour’, poverty, employment and labour markets, structural adjustment policies and social change.

Çağatay, Nilüfer, ‘Engendering Macroeconomics and Macroeconomic Policies’, United Nations Development Programme, SEPED Working Paper no. 6, New York, October 1998.
This document assesses macroeconomic policy in relationship to gender, recognizing that too often macroeconomic theories and practices are presumed to be gender-neutral when in fact their effects are gender-biased. Macroeconomic models failed to recognize women’s unpaid work or the gendered role of economic behaviour. The author argues that a failure to recognize gender inequities on the micro and mesa levels have macroeconomic implications. The paper concludes with examples of efforts to connect gender and macroeconomics.

Datt, Gaurav and Martin Ravallion, ‘Is India’s Economic Crisis Leaving the Poor Behind?’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 16, no. 3, American Economic Association, 2002.
This research studies poverty in India and concludes that low education attainment has been costly to India’s poor, depriving them of the capacity to participate in economic growth opportunities. It finds that human development and poverty-reduction policies are synergistic and states that governments must combine human resource development with policies favourable to economic growth to effectively fight poverty.

Dollar, David and Roberta Gatti, ‘Gender Inequality, Income and Growth: Are good times good for women?’, Gender and Development Working Paper Series no. 1, Development Research Group, World Bank, Washington, D.C., May 1999.
This paper contends that countries pay a huge price when they fail to invest in women’s education and health. In reviewing country data, the authors find that nations that underinvest in girls’ education grow more slowly, that underinvestment in girls is often attributable to religious or social customs and that market failures may result in a failure to invest in girls. It concludes that further study is needed to determine the relationship between income, capital market development and gender equality.

Easterly, William, ‘The Lost Decades: Developing countries’ stagnation in spite of policy reform 1980-1998’, World Bank, Washington, D.C., February 2001.
This paper analyses the economic stagnation of poor countries during the period 1980-1998 and suggests that increased interest rates, increased debt burdens, the slowdown of growth in industrialized nations, and skill-based technical demands contributed to developing nations’ economic stagnation.

Easterly, William, 'The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists’ adventures and misadventures in the tropics', MIT Press, Cambridge and London, 2001.
This book critiques economic policies and interventions and their failure to produce economic growth for the poor. The author contends that this has not been a failure of economics but rather a failure to combine economics with practical application – people’s need for incentives. Alternative approaches to development are presented.

Forbes, Kristin J., ‘A Reassessment of the Relationship between Inequality and Growth’, in 'The American Economic Review', vol. 90, no. 4, American Economic Association, 2000, pp. 869-887.
This reprint of a doctoral dissertation looks at the relationship between income inequality and economic growth, and assesses previous theories and methodologies that evaluated the correlation between income inequality and failed economic development.

Jayarajah, Carl, William Branson and Binayak Sen, 'The Social Dimensions of Adjustment: World Bank experience', 1980-1993, World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1996.
This evaluation of adjustment operations supported by the World Bank in 1980-1993 looks at the relationship between adjustment and poverty reduction. It presents an overview of successful macroeconomic policies, trends in social and public spending, and recommendations for future World Bank lending policies.

Klasen, Stephan, ‘Does Gender Inequality Reduce Growth and Development? Evidence from cross-country regressions’, Gender and Development Working Paper Series no. 7, Development Research Group, World Bank, Washington, D.C., November 1999.
This paper supports gender equality in education and employment as an effective tool for economic growth and development. It analyses the growth rates in East Asia, South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East and determines that the differences in growth rates among these regions result from gender inequality in education. It further shows that gender inequality hinders progress towards reducing fertility rates and child mortality.

King, Elizabeth M. and Andrew D. Mason, 'Engendering Development: Through gender equality in rights, resources, and voice', World Bank and Oxford University Press, Washington, D.C., 2001.
This report identifies gender disparity in education as the principal contributor to poor economic growth.  In underscores gender-related economic implications for developing and transitional countries and provides strategies and recommendations for promoting gender equality and human development.

Mehrotra, Santosh and Richard Jolly, eds., 'Development with a Human Face: Experiences in social achievement and economic growth', Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997.
This book profiles 10 countries that out-achieved their projected developmental growth. The authors theorize that investing in human services led to the countries’ economic growth and highlight the lessons learned from these countries and their implication for development theory and policy.

Meier, Gerald M. and Joseph E. Stiglitz, eds., 'Frontiers of Development Economics: The future in perspective', World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2000.
This is a compilation of essays from 35 development economists. They critique development theory, assess future challenges and discuss the validity of development economics as a field separate from applied economics. This reference book details what is needed for future development and poverty reduction.

Murphy, Josette, 'Mainstreaming Gender in World Bank Lending: An update', World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1997.
This is a follow-up to the World Bank’s earlier study on women and development and gender considerations in the World Bank’s policies and lending. It finds that the success rates of projects that included gender goals were higher than those that did not. It further reviews the prevalence of projects with gender-related actions and makes recommendations for future programming.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Development Assistance Committee, 'Development Co-operation Report 2002', Paris, 2002.
This report describes the contributions of the Development Assistance Committee to international aid, themes and outcomes of the 2002 DAC Development Partnership Forum, issues arising from the Monterrey Conference (International Conference on Financing Development) in 2002, and policies related to official development assistance and capacity building activities. It includes policy recommendations, and statistical annexes on international aid and other development instruments.

Sen, Amartya, 'Commodities and Capabilities', Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999.
This monograph lays out the foundations of ‘welfare economics’ – evaluating economic policy as it relates to the well-being of a community. It advocates for a new model that focuses on a person’s ability to function. It includes appendices on international comparisons and gender bias in the Indian economy. Amartya Sen was a Nobel Prize in economics recipient in 1998.

Sen, Amartya, 'Development as Freedom', Anchor Books/Doubleday, 2000.
The author argues that freedom is both the ultimate goal of development and the path to development. Freedom is the most effective means to fight poverty, open dialogue, and gain civil freedoms and political liberties, which he believes are prerequisites for sustainable development. The author promotes investment in social services as an essential tool for development and rails against money being diverted from human needs for military operations.

Summers, Lawrence H., ‘Investing in All the People: Educating women in developing countries’, World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1994.
This publication states that investment in women’s education is one of the most cost-effective tools for development. It asserts that educating women reduces environmental pollution, fertility rates and female mortality rates, and prevents the spread of HIV/AIDS. The author outlines the entrenched cultural obstacles that bar girls from the classroom and highlights programmes that have successfully overcome barriers to girls’ education.

United Nations Development Programme, 'UNDP Poverty Report 2000: Overcoming human poverty', UNDP, New York, 2000.
This book presents the United Nations Development Programme’s blueprint for overcoming poverty. It examines the international commitments to poverty reduction and national anti-poverty plans, suggests reforms in governance and makes recommendations for resource allocation.
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United Nations Development Programme, 'UNDP Poverty Report 1998: Overcoming human poverty', UNDP, New York, 1998.
This report evaluates the progress in fighting poverty since the 1995 World Summit for Social Development. It includes the results of the United Nations Development Programme survey of governments’ efforts in honouring their commitments made at the Summit. It spells out what must be done to make inroads in the fight to eliminate poverty with a particular emphasis on multisectoral solutions.

Visvanathan, N. et al, 'The Women, Gender and Development Reader', Zed Books, London, 1997.
This book is a compilation of articles from leading thinkers on women and development. It looks at feminist theory, women and the household economy, women in the global economy, women’s situation in circumstances of social transformation, and women’s movements in the developing world.  It reiterates the importance of women in economic and human development.



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