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The State of the World's Children 2004

Early childhood care and education

Jaramillo, Adriana, Karen Tietjen and Bruno Suchaut, 'Early Childhood Development in Africa: Can we do more and better for less? A look at the impact and implications of preschools in Cape Verde and Guinea', World Bank Africa Region Human Development Work
The study uses data from a relatively wealthy country – Cape Verde – and a relatively poor country – Guinea – to describe different early childhood programme options. It explores the effectiveness of these programmes for children’s cognitive and physical development. The paper highlights successful interventions and makes recommendations for governments to provide cost-effective, quality early childhood programmes.

Myers, Robert, 'The Twelve Who Survive: Strengthening programmes of early childhood development in the third world', 2nd. ed., High/Scope Press, Ypsilanti, MI, 1995.
The author argues that programmes aimed primarily at survival are not enough to allow children to fulfil their individual and social potential. This well-researched book bolsters this argument with scientific studies on brain development, successful programme examples and substantiated reasons why children in developing countries are entitled to more than survival. This is an impassioned plea to include psychosocial and cognitive development components in programmes for young children.

O’Gara, Chloe, et al., 'Qualities of Caring: Good practices in infant and toddler care', World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1999.
The paper, one in a series on early child development, examines early childhood programmes for low-income families in resource poor settings in Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, Peru, the Philippines and Venezuela. Regardless of their settings – private home, group home or institutional care – successful programmes included parental involvement, nutrition, environmental safety, health monitoring and psychosocial and cognitive development. In reviewing the data, the authors identified essential elements for quality infant and toddler care.

Save the Children, ‘What’s the Difference?: An ECD impact study from Nepal’, Save the Children, Kathmandu, 2003.
The study describes the success of early childhood programmes in Nepal and their dramatic impact not only on young children, but also on their families and communities. It focuses on the effect of early childhood programmes on children’s transition to school and their enrolment, retention and completion rates. The study looks at the effects of early childhood programmes on girls in an area where gender discrimination is rampant.

Tinker, Anna and Marjorie A. Koblinsky, 'Making Motherhood Safe', World Bank Discussion Paper 202, World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1993.
The paper provides a comprehensive overview of maternal mortality and morbidity and of essential programme and policy interventions to promote safe motherhood. It describes specific strategies for programme implementation on three levels – policy, service delivery and community – and settings typical of developing countries – with limited health infrastructure, with underutilized services and with well-developed systems of health care.

United Nations Children’s Fund, 'The State of the World’s Children 2001', UNICEF, New York, 2000.
UNICEF devoted this publication to the topic of early childhood. The central theme is that the most critical stage of a child’s development occurs before the age of three. The document includes evidence of the early years’ importance to later life, information on brain development, examples of successful early childhood programmes from around the globe and arguments of the cost-effectiveness of investing in the world’s youngest citizens.



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