Table 8: The rate of progress  

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  Under-5
mortality
rank
Under-5
mortality
rate
Average annual rate of
reduction (%)
GNP per capita
average annual
growth rate
(%)
Total
fertility rate
Average annual
rate of
reduction (%)
 
 
 
  1960-90 1990-99 required*
1999-2000
  1960 1990 1999 1965-80 1990-99 1960 1990 1999 1960-90 1990-99
                             
Afghanistan 4 360 260 257 1.1 0.1 >33 0.6 - 6.9 6.9 6.7 0.0 0.3
Albania 91 151 41 35 4.3 1.8 25 - 3.1 5.9 3.0 2.4 2.3 2.5
Algeria 87 255 48 41 5.6 1.8 25 4.2 -0.4 7.3 4.6 3.6 1.5 2.7
Andorra 161 - - 7 - - - - - - - - - -
Angola 2 345 283 295 0.7 -0.5 >33 - -9.2 6.4 7.2 6.6 -0.4 1.0
Antigua and Barbuda 133 - - 20 - - - - 3.5x - - - - -
Argentina 123 72 28 22 3.1 2.7 16 1.7 3.7 3.1 2.9 2.6 0.2 1.2
Armenia 101 48 31 30 1.5 0.4 >33 - -3.1 4.5 2.4 1.7 2.1 3.8
Australia 175 24 10 5 2.9 7.7 On target 2.2 2.7 3.3 1.9 1.8 1.8 0.6
Austria 175 43 9 5 5.2 6.5 On target 4.0 1.6 2.7 1.5 1.4 2.0 0.8
Azerbaijan 81 74 44 45 1.7 -0.2 >33 - -10.1 5.5 2.7 2.0 2.4 3.3
Bahamas 129 68 29 21 2.8 3.6 8 - -0.8x 4.4 2.6 2.6 1.8 0.0
Bahrain 142 160 19 16 7.1 1.9 23 - 1.5x 7.1 3.8 2.7 2.1 3.8
Bangladesh 53 248 144 89 1.8 5.3 24 -0.3 6.6 6.7 4.3 3.0 1.5 4.0
Barbados 142 90 16 16 5.8 0.0 >33 - 1.0x 4.5 1.7 1.5 3.2 1.4
Belarus 109 47 19 28 3.0 -4.3 >33 - -2.8 2.7 1.9 1.4 1.2 3.4
Belgium 165 35 9 6 4.5 4.5 On target 3.6 1.7 2.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 0.0
Belize 82 104 49 43 2.5 1.5 27 - 0.5 6.5 4.4 3.5 1.3 2.5
Benin 24 300 185 156 1.6 1.9 >33 -0.3 1.9 6.9 6.6 5.6 0.1 1.8
Bhutan 45 300 166 107 2.0 4.9 >33 - 2.1 5.9 5.8 5.3 0.1 1.0
Bolivia 55 255 122 83 2.5 4.3 17 1.7 2.0 6.7 4.9 4.2 1.0 1.7
Bosnia and Herzegovina 137 160 22 18 6.6 2.2 20 - 30.2x 4.0 1.7 1.4 2.9 2.2
Botswana 69 173 50 59 4.1 -1.8 >33 9.9 1.0 6.8 5.1 4.2 1.0 2.2
Brazil 89 177 60 40 3.6 4.5 On target 6.3 1.3 6.2 2.7 2.2 2.8 2.3
Brunei Darussalam 154 87 11 9 6.9 2.2 21 - -2.1x 6.9 3.2 2.7 2.6 1.9
Bulgaria 139 70 18 17 4.5 0.6 >33 - -1.5 2.2 1.7 1.2 0.9 3.9
Burkina Faso 13 315 210 199 1.4 0.6 >33 1.7 1.3 6.7 7.3 6.4 -0.3 1.5
Burundi 19 255 180 176 1.2 0.2 >33 2.4 -5.1 6.8 6.8 6.1 0.0 1.2
Cambodia 35 - 107 122 - -1.5 >33 - 1.8 6.3 5.0 4.4 0.8 1.4
Cameroon 26 255 139 154 2.0 -1.1 >33 2.4 -1.5 5.8 5.9 5.1 -0.1 1.6
Canada 165 33 9 6 4.3 4.5 On target 3.3 1.3 3.8 1.7 1.6 2.7 0.7
Cape Verde 62 164 73 73 2.7 0.0 >33 - 2.9 7.0 4.3 3.4 1.6 2.6
Central African Rep. 21 327 177 172 2.0 0.3 >33 0.8 -0.3 5.6 5.5 4.8 0.1 1.5
Chad 14 325 198 198 1.7 0.0 >33 -1.9 -1.0 6.0 6.6 5.9 -0.3 1.2
Chile 147 138 20 12 6.4 5.7 On target 0.0 6.0 5.3 2.6 2.4 2.4 0.9
China 87 225 49 41 5.1 2.0 23 4.1 9.2 5.7 2.2 1.8 3.2 2.2
Colombia 100 122 35 31 4.2 1.3 29 3.7 1.3 6.8 3.1 2.7 2.6 1.5
Comoros 54 265 120 86 2.6 3.7 21 - -3.2 6.8 6.0 4.6 0.4 3.0
Congo 44 220 110 108 2.3 0.2 >33 2.7 -1.8 5.9 6.3 5.9 -0.2 0.7
Congo, Dem. Rep. 9 302 207 207 1.3 0.0 >33 -1.3 -8.5x 6.0 6.7 6.2 -0.4 0.9
Cook Islands 101 - 32 30 - 0.7 >33 - - - - - - -
Costa Rica 146 112 16 14 6.5 1.5 27 3.3 1.7 7.0 3.2 2.8 2.6 1.5
Côte d'Ivoire 22 290 155 171 2.1 -1.1 >33 2.8 1.7 7.2 6.3 4.9 0.4 2.8
Croatia 154 98 13 9 6.7 4.1 3 - 1.0 2.3 1.7 1.6 1.0 0.7
Cuba 158 54 13 8 4.7 5.4 On target - - 4.2 1.7 1.6 3.0 0.7
Cyprus 158 36 12 8 3.7 4.5 On target - 2.7 3.5 2.4 2.0 1.3 2.0
Czech Rep. 175 25 11 5 2.7 8.8 On target - -0.1 2.3 1.8 1.2 0.8 4.5
Denmark 175 25 9 5 3.4 6.5 On target 2.2 2.6 2.6 1.7 1.7 1.4 0.0
Djibouti 27 289 175 149 1.7 1.8 >33 - - 7.0 6.0 5.1 0.5 1.8
Dominica 137 - 23 18 - 2.7 16 - 1.2 - - - - -
Dominican Rep. 76 149 65 49 2.8 3.1 12 3.8 3.7 7.4 3.3 2.7 2.7 2.2
Ecuador 91 178 57 35 3.8 5.4 On target 5.4 -0.1 6.7 3.8 3.0 1.9 2.6
Egypt 73 282 104 52 3.3 7.7 On target 2.8 2.8 7.0 4.2 3.2 1.7 3.0
El Salvador 83 191 60 42 3.9 4.0 5 1.5 2.8 6.8 3.7 3.1 2.0 2.0
Equatorial Guinea 23 316 206 160 1.4 2.8 >33 - 14.3 5.5 5.9 5.4 -0.2 1.0
Eritrea 46 250 160 105 1.5 4.7 >33 - 2.0x 6.9 6.2 5.5 0.4 1.3
Estonia 129 52 22 21 2.9 0.5 >33 - -0.4 2.0 1.9 1.3 0.2 4.2
Ethiopia 19 269 193 176 1.1 1.0 >33 0.4 2.6 6.9 6.8 6.2 0.0 1.0
Fiji 123 97 31 22 3.8 3.8 6 - 0.8 6.4 3.1 2.6 2.4 2.0
Finland 175 28 7 5 4.6 3.7 6 3.6 2.1 2.7 1.8 1.7 1.4 0.6
France 175 34 9 5 4.4 6.5 On target 3.7 1.3 2.8 1.8 1.7 1.5 0.6
Gabon 28 287 164 143 1.9 1.5 >33 5.6 0.2 4.1 5.1 5.2 -0.7 -0.2
Gambia 60 364 127 75 3.5 5.9 7 - -0.1 6.4 5.9 5.0 0.3 1.8
Georgia 119 70 29 23 2.9 2.6 18 - -8.6 3.0 2.2 1.9 1.0 1.6
Germany 175 40 9 5 5.0 6.5 On target 3.0x 1.0x 2.4 1.4 1.3 1.8 0.8
Ghana 48 215 127 101 1.8 2.5 >33 -0.8 1.5 6.9 6.0 5.0 0.5 2.0
Greece 161 64 11 7 5.9 5.0 On target 4.8 1.4 2.2 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.6
Grenada 110 - 37 27 - 3.5 9 - 2.0 - - - - -
Guatemala 68 202 82 60 3.0 3.5 9 3.0 1.5 6.9 5.6 4.7 0.7 1.9
Guinea 17 380 240 181 1.5 3.1 >33 1.3 2.0 7.0 6.3 5.3 0.4 1.9
Guinea-Bissau 12 336 246 200 1.0 2.3 >33 -2.7 -2.2 5.1 6.0 5.6 -0.5 0.8
Guyana 58 126 90 76 1.1 1.9 24 - 9.6 6.5 2.6 2.2 3.1 1.9
Haiti 33 253 150 129 1.7 1.7 >33 0.9 -3.1 6.3 5.4 4.2 0.5 2.8
Holy See - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Honduras 83 204 61 42 4.0 4.1 3 1.1 1.0 7.5 5.2 4.1 1.2 2.6
Hungary 151 57 16 10 4.2 5.2 On target 5.1 1.4 2.0 1.8 1.3 0.4 3.6
Iceland 175 22 5 5 4.9 0.0 >33 - 2.0 4.0 2.2 2.1 2.0 0.5
India 49 242 123 98 2.3 2.5 >33 1.5 3.9 5.9 3.8 3.0 1.5 2.6
Indonesia 73 216 91 52 2.9 6.2 On target 5.2 2.8 5.6 3.1 2.5 2.0 2.4
Iran 79 281 72 46 4.5 5.0 On target 2.9 1.7 7.2 4.9 2.7 1.3 6.6
Iraq 34 171 50 128 4.1 -10.4 >33 - - 7.2 5.9 5.1 0.7 1.6
Ireland 161 36 9 7 4.6 2.8 15 2.8 6.1 3.8 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.1
Israel 165 39 12 6 3.9 7.7 On target 3.7 2.5x 3.9 3.0 2.6 0.9 1.6
Italy 165 50 10 6 5.4 5.7 On target 3.2 1.1 2.5 1.3 1.2 2.2 0.9
Jamaica 149 76 16 11 5.2 4.2 3 -0.1 0.2 5.4 2.8 2.4 2.2 1.7
Japan 187 40 6 4 6.3 4.5 On target 5.1 1.1 2.1 1.6 1.4 0.9 1.5
Jordan 91 139 38 35 4.3 0.9 >33 5.8x 1.4 7.7 5.8 4.7 0.9 2.3
Kazakhstan 83 74 48 42 1.4 1.5 27 - -5.4 4.5 2.8 2.2 1.6 2.7
Kenya 37 205 97 118 2.5 -2.2 >33 3.1 0.1 8.0 6.1 4.2 0.9 4.1
Kiribati 63 - 88 72 - 2.2 20 - 1.5 - - - - -
Korea, Dem. People's Rep. 101 120 35 30 4.1 1.7 25 - - 5.8 2.2 2.0 3.2 1.1
Korea, Rep. of 175 127 9 5 8.8 6.5 On target 7.3 4.5 6.0 1.8 1.7 4.0 0.6
Kuwait 147 128 16 12 6.9 3.2 12 0.6x 13.3x 7.3 3.6 2.8 2.4 2.8
Kyrgyzstan 67 180 83 65 2.6 2.7 16 - -6.6 5.1 3.8 3.1 1.0 2.3
Lao People's Dem. Rep. 42 235 163 111 1.2 4.3 >33 - 3.6 6.2 6.5 5.6 -0.2 1.7
Latvia 129 44 20 21 2.6 -0.5 >33 - -3.6 1.9 1.9 1.3 0.0 4.2
Lebanon 98 85 37 32 2.8 1.6 26 - 3.9 6.3 3.3 2.5 2.2 3.1
Lesotho 31 203 148 134 1.1 1.1 >33 6.8 -0.4 5.8 5.1 4.6 0.4 1.1
Liberia 5 288 235 235 0.7 0.0 >33 0.5 - 6.6 6.8 6.1 -0.1 1.2
Libya 123 270 42 22 6.2 7.2 On target 0.0 - 7.1 4.9 3.6 1.2 3.4
Liechtenstein 149 - - 11 - - - - - - - - - -
Lithuania 123 70 21 22 4.0 -0.5 >33 - -4.2 2.5 1.9 1.4 0.9 3.4
Luxembourg 175 41 9 5 5.1 6.5 On target - 1.6 2.3 1.6 1.7 1.2 -0.7
Madagascar 24 364 168 156 2.6 0.8 >33 -0.4 -0.8 6.6 6.2 5.2 0.2 2.0
Malawi 7 361 230 211 1.5 1.0 >33 3.2 1.2 6.9 7.3 6.5 -0.2 1.3
Malaysia 154 105 21 9 5.4 9.4 On target 4.7 4.2 6.8 3.8 3.0 1.9 2.6
Maldives 55 300 115 83 3.2 3.6 17 - 3.9 7.0 6.4 5.2 0.3 2.3
Mali 5 517 254 235 2.4 0.9 >33 2.1x 0.5 7.1 7.1 6.4 0.0 1.2
Malta 161 42 14 7 3.7 7.7 On target - 3.4 3.4 2.0 1.9 1.8 0.6
Marshall Islands 50 - 92 92 - 0.0 >33 - -6.8 - - - - -
Mauritania 16 310 183 183 1.8 0.0 >33 -0.1 1.6 6.5 6.0 5.3 0.3 1.4
Mauritius 119 92 25 23 4.3 0.9 32 3.7 3.9 5.9 2.2 1.9 3.3 1.6
Mexico 97 134 46 33 3.6 3.7 7 3.6 0.9 6.9 3.4 2.7 2.4 2.6
Micronesia, Fed. States of 117 - 31 24 - 2.8 15 - -2.7x - - - - -
Moldova, Rep. of 94 88 37 34 2.9 0.9 32 - -6.0x 3.3 2.4 1.7 1.1 3.8
Monaco 175 - - 5 - - - - - - - - - -
Mongolia 57 - 107 80 - 3.2 13 - -1.0 6.0 4.1 2.5 1.3 5.5
Morocco 72 211 85 53 3.0 5.2 On target 2.7 0.5 7.2 3.8 2.9 2.1 3.0
Mozambique 10 313 235 203 1.0 1.6 >33 - 4.1 6.3 6.5 6.1 -0.1 0.7
Myanmar 39 252 130 112 2.2 1.7 >33 1.6 2.9x 6.0 3.2 2.3 2.1 3.7
Namibia 65 206 84 70 3.0 2.0 22 - 0.8 6.0 5.4 4.7 0.4 1.5
Nauru 101 - - 30 - - - - - - - - - -
Nepal 47 315 145 104 2.6 3.7 >33 - 2.3 5.8 5.4 4.3 0.2 2.5
Netherlands 175 22 8 5 3.4 5.2 On target 2.7 2.2 3.1 1.6 1.5 2.2 0.7
New Zealand 165 26 11 6 2.9 6.7 On target 1.7 1.3 3.9 2.1 2.0 2.1 0.5
Nicaragua 78 193 66 47 3.6 3.8 7 -0.7 3.0 7.3 5.0 4.2 1.3 1.9
Niger 3 354 320 275 0.3 1.7 >33 -2.5 -0.9 7.3 7.6 6.6 -0.1 1.6
Nigeria 15 207 190 187 0.3 0.2 >33 4.2 0.2 6.5 6.0 5.0 0.3 2.0
Niue - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Norway 187 23 9 4 3.1 9.0 On target 3.6 3.4 2.9 1.9 1.9 1.4 0.0
Oman 142 280 30 16 7.4 7.0 On target 9.0 -0.4x 7.2 7.0 5.7 0.1 2.3
Pakistan 39 227 128 112 1.9 1.5 >33 1.8 1.4 6.9 5.8 4.8 0.6 2.1
Palau 94 - 34 34 - 0.0 >33 - - - - - - -
Panama 110 88 34 27 3.2 2.6 17 2.8 2.4 5.9 3.0 2.6 2.3 1.6
Papua New Guinea 39 204 112 112 2.0 0.0 >33 - 1.6 6.3 5.1 4.4 0.7 1.6
Paraguay 98 90 37 32 3.0 1.6 26 4.1 -0.4 6.5 4.7 4.0 1.1 1.8
Peru 73 234 75 52 3.8 4.1 4 0.8 3.5 6.9 3.7 2.8 2.1 3.1
Philippines 83 110 66 42 1.7 5.0 On target 3.2 1.5 6.9 4.2 3.5 1.7 2.0
Poland 151 70 19 10 4.3 7.1 On target - 4.4x 3.0 2.0 1.5 1.4 3.2
Portugal 165 112 15 6 6.7 10.2 On target 4.6 2.3 3.1 1.6 1.4 2.2 1.5
Qatar 142 140 25 16 5.7 5.0 On target - -5.3x 7.0 4.4 3.6 1.5 2.2
Romania 117 82 32 24 3.1 3.2 12 - -0.7 2.3 1.9 1.2 0.6 5.1
Russian Federation 123 64 26 22 3.0 1.9 24 - -6.6 2.6 1.8 1.4 1.2 2.8
Rwanda 18 210 161 180 0.9 -1.2 >33 1.6 -3.1 7.5 6.8 6.0 0.3 1.4
Saint Kitts and Nevis 108 - 36 29 - 2.4 19 - 4.3 - - - - -
Saint Lucia 135 - 24 19 - 2.6 17 - 1.2 - - - - -
Saint Vincent/Grenadines 115 - 26 25 - 0.4 >33 - 2.6 - - - - -
Samoa 112 210 42 26 5.4 5.3 On target - 1.2 8.3 4.7 4.0 1.9 1.8
San Marino 165 - 10 6 - 5.7 On target - - - - - - -
Sao Tome and Principe 58 - 90 76 - 1.9 24 - -0.8 - - - - -
Saudi Arabia 115 250 44 25 5.8 6.3 On target 4.0x -2.4x 7.2 6.6 5.6 0.3 1.8
Senegal 37 300 147 118 2.4 2.4 >33 -0.5 0.9 7.0 6.3 5.4 0.4 1.7
Seychelles 139 - 21 17 - 2.3 19 - 1.4 - - - - -
Sierra Leone 1 390 323 316 0.6 0.2 >33 0.7 -5.4 6.2 6.5 5.9 -0.2 1.1
Singapore 187 40 8 4 5.4 7.7 On target 8.3 6.8 5.5 1.7 1.7 3.9 0.0
Slovakia 151 40 15 10 3.3 4.5 On target - 1.6 3.1 2.0 1.4 1.5 4.0
Slovenia 165 45 9 6 5.4 4.5 On target - 4.3x 2.4 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.6
Solomon Islands 112 185 36 26 5.5 3.6 8 - 0.1 6.4 5.7 4.7 0.4 2.1
Somalia 7 294 215 211 1.0 0.2 >33 -0.1 -2.3 7.3 7.3 7.1 0.0 0.3
South Africa 66 130 60 69 2.6 -1.6 >33 3.2 0.0 6.5 3.7 3.1 1.9 2.0
Spain 165 57 9 6 6.2 4.5 On target 4.1 1.9 2.8 1.4 1.1 2.3 2.7
Sri Lanka 135 133 23 19 5.8 2.1 22 2.8 3.9 5.3 2.4 2.1 2.6 1.5
Sudan 43 208 123 109 1.8 1.3 >33 0.8 3.7 6.7 5.2 4.5 0.8 1.6
Suriname 94 98 44 34 2.7 2.9 15 - 0.1x 6.6 2.7 2.2 3.0 2.3
Swaziland 51 233 115 90 2.4 2.7 25 - -0.1 6.5 5.4 4.5 0.6 2.0
Sweden 187 20 6 4 4.0 4.5 On target 2.0 1.0 2.3 2.0 1.6 0.5 2.5
Switzerland 187 27 8 4 4.1 7.7 On target 1.5 0.0 2.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 0.0
Syria 101 201 44 30 5.1 4.3 2 5.1 1.0 7.3 5.7 3.8 0.8 4.5
Tajikistan 61 140 78 74 1.9 0.6 >33 - -11.9 6.3 5.0 4.0 0.8 2.5
Tanzania 30 240 150 141 1.6 0.7 >33 0.8 0.7 6.8 6.1 5.3 0.4 1.6
TFYR Macedonia 112 177 41 26 4.9 5.1 On target - -1.4x 4.2 2.2 2.1 2.2 0.5
Thailand 101 148 40 30 4.4 3.2 12 4.4 3.4 6.4 2.3 1.7 3.4 3.4
Togo 28 267 152 143 1.9 0.7 >33 1.7 -0.6 6.6 6.6 5.8 0.0 1.4
Tonga 123 - 27 22 - 2.3 20 - 0.8 - - - - -
Trinidad and Tobago 133 73 24 20 3.7 2.0 22 3.1 1.5 5.2 2.5 1.6 2.4 5.0
Tunisia 101 254 52 30 5.3 6.1 On target 4.7 2.9 7.1 3.6 2.5 2.3 4.1
Turkey 77 219 78 48 3.4 5.4 On target 3.6 2.4 6.3 3.2 2.4 2.3 3.2
Turkmenistan 64 150 76 71 2.3 0.8 >33 - -7.0x 6.4 4.3 3.4 1.3 2.6
Tuvalu 71 - 56 56 - 0.0 >33 - - - - - - -
Uganda 32 224 165 131 1.0 2.6 >33 -2.2 4.3 6.9 7.1 7.0 -0.1 0.2
Ukraine 129 53 22 21 2.9 0.5 >33 - -10.3 2.2 1.8 1.4 0.7 2.8
United Arab Emirates 154 223 14 9 9.2 4.9 On target - -1.6x 6.9 4.2 3.3 1.7 2.7
United Kingdom 165 27 9 6 3.7 4.5 On target 2.0 2.0 2.7 1.8 1.7 1.4 0.6
United States 158 30 10 8 3.7 2.5 18 1.8 2.2 3.5 2.0 2.0 1.9 0.0
Uruguay 139 56 24 17 2.8 3.8 6 2.5 3.0 2.9 2.5 2.4 0.5 0.5
Uzbekistan 70 120 58 58 2.4 0.0 >33 - -1.4x 6.3 4.1 3.3 1.4 2.4
Vanuatu 79 225 70 46 3.9 4.7 On target - -2.7 7.2 4.9 4.1 1.3 2.0
Venezuela 119 75 27 23 3.4 1.8 25 2.3 -0.6 6.6 3.5 2.9 2.1 2.1
Viet Nam 89 219 50 40 4.9 2.5 18 - 6.2 6.1 3.8 2.5 1.6 4.7
Yemen 36 340 142 119 2.9 2.0 >33 - -1.6 7.6 7.6 7.3 0.0 0.4
Yugoslavia 119 120 30 23 4.6 3.0 14 - - 2.7 2.1 1.8 0.8 1.7
Zambia 11 213 192 202 0.3 -0.6 >33 -1.2 -0.9 6.6 6.2 5.3 0.2 1.7
Zimbabwe 51 159 80 90 2.3 -1.3 >33 1.7 -0.2 7.5 5.0 3.6 1.4 3.7
                             
Regional summaries                            
Sub-Saharan Africa   259 180 173 1.2 0.4 93 2.8 0.1 6.7 6.2 5.4 0.3 1.6
Middle East and North Africa   247 79 63 3.8 2.4 24 3.1 0.3 7.1 4.9 3.7 1.3 3.1
South Asia   244 128 104 2.1 2.4 40 1.4 3.8 6.1 4.1 3.3 1.3 2.5
East Asia and Pacific   212 57 45 4.4 2.8 15 4.9 6.6 5.8 2.5 2.0 2.8 2.3
Latin America and Caribbean   153 53 39 3.5 3.6 10 4.0 1.8 6.1 3.2 2.6 2.2 2.1
CEE/CIS and Baltic States   101 42 35 3.0 2.0 16 - -1.9 3.1 2.3 1.7 1.1 2.8
Industrialized countries   37 9 6 4.7 4.2 3 2.9 1.7 2.8 1.7 1.6 1.7 0.6
Developing countries   222 102 90 2.6 1.4 50 3.7 3.3 6.1 3.5 2.9 1.8 2.2
Least developed countries   283 182 164 1.5 1.2 85 -0.1 2.2 6.6 5.7 4.9 0.5 1.7
World   198 92 82 2.6 1.3 49 3.1 1.9 5.1 3.1 2.6 1.6 1.9

Definitions of the indicators


Under-five mortality rate
— Probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age expressed per 1,000 live births.
GNP per capita — Gross national product (GNP) is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers, plus any taxes that are not included in the valuation of output, plus net receipts of primary income from non-resident sources. GNP per capita is the gross national product, converted to United States dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the mid-year population.
Total fertility rate — The number of children that would be born per woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children at each age in accordance with prevailing age-specific fertility rates.
Average annual rate of reduction required 1999-2000 — The average annual reduction rate required, for the period 1999-2000, to achieve an under-five mortality rate in the year 2000 of 70 per 1,000 live births or two thirds the 1990 rate, whichever is less.
On target — Denotes countries in which the rate required to meet the year 2000 goal is lower than the currently estimated rate for the decade. But ‘on target’ should be interpreted with care as mortality estimates for 1999 are frequently based on data from earlier years, and as such cannot reflect very recent or sudden changes.
>33 — Identifies countries in which the required reduction of the under-five mortality rate for the period 1999-2000 is greater than 33%.

Main data sources


Under-five mortality
— United Nations Population Division, United Nations Statistics Division and UNICEF.
GNP per capita — World Bank.
Fertility — United Nations Population Division.

Notes


- Data not available.
x Indicates data that refer to years or periods other than those specified in the column heading, differ from the standard definition, or refer to only part of a country.

Measuring human development
An introduction to table 8


If development in the 1990s is to assume a more human face, then there arises a corresponding need for a means of measuring human as well as economic progress. From UNICEF’s point of view, in particular, there is a need for an agreed method of measuring the level of child well-being and its rate of change.

The under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is used in table 8 as the principal indicator of such progress.

The U5MR has several advantages. First, it measures an end result of the development process rather than an ‘input’ such as school enrolment level, per capita calorie availability, or the number of doctors per thousand population – all of which are means to an end.

Second, the U5MR is known to be the result of a wide variety of inputs: the nutritional health and the health knowledge of mothers; the level of immunization and ORT use; the availability of maternal and child health services (including prenatal care); income and food availability in the family; the availability of clean water and safe sanitation; and the overall safety of the child’s environment.

Third, the U5MR is less susceptible than, say, per capita GNP to the fallacy of the average. This is because the natural scale does not allow the children of the rich to be one thousand times as likely to survive, even if the man-made scale does permit them to have one thousand times as much income. In other words, it is much more difficult for a wealthy minority to affect a nation’s U5MR, and it therefore presents a more accurate, if far from perfect, picture of the health status of the majority of children (and of society as a whole).

For these reasons, the U5MR is chosen by UNICEF as its single most important indicator of the state of a nation’s children. That is why the tables rank the nations of the world not in ascending order of their per capita GNP but in descending order of their under-five mortality rates.

The speed of progress in reducing the U5MR can be measured by calculating its average annual reduction rate (AARR). Unlike the comparison of absolute changes, the AARR reflects the fact that the lower limits to U5MR are approached only with increasing difficulty. As lower levels of under-five mortality are reached, for example, the same absolute reduction obviously represents a greater percentage of reduction. The AARR therefore shows a higher rate of progress for, say, a 10-point reduction if that reduction happens at a lower level of under-five mortality. (A fall in U5MR of 10 points from 100 to 90 represents a reduction of 10 per cent, whereas the same 10-point fall from 20 to 10 represents a reduction of 50 per cent).

When used in conjunction with GNP growth rates, the U5MR and its reduction rate can therefore give a picture of the progress being made by any country or region, and over any period of time, towards the satisfaction of some of the most essential of human needs.

As table 8 shows, there is no fixed relationship between the annual reduction rate of the U5MR and the annual rate of growth in per capita GNP. Such comparisons help to throw the emphasis on to the policies, priorities, and other factors which determine the ratio between economic and social progress.

Finally, the table gives the total fertility rate for each country and its average annual rate of reduction. It will be seen that many of the nations that have achieved significant reductions in their U5MR have also achieved significant reductions in fertility.