1 in 3 children exposed to severe water scarcity – UNICEF
The climate-changed world – with dwindling water supply and inadequate water services – is also changing children, altering their mental and physical health, new report warns
NEW YORK, 13 November 2023 – 1 in 3 children – or 739 million worldwide – already live in areas exposed to high or very high water scarcity, with climate change threatening to make this worse, according to a new UNICEF report.
Further, the double burden of dwindling water availability and inadequate drinking water and sanitation services is compounding the challenge, putting children at even greater risk.
The Climate Changed Child – released ahead of the COP28 climate change summit - throws a spotlight on the threat to children as a result of water vulnerability, one of the ways in which the impacts of climate change are being felt. It provides an analysis of the impacts of three tiers of water security globally – water scarcity, water vulnerability, and water stress*.
The report, a supplement to the UNICEF’s Children’s Climate Risk (2021), also outlines the myriad of other ways in which children bear the brunt of the impacts of the climate crisis –including disease, air pollution, and extreme weather events such as floods and droughts. From the moment of conception until they grow into adulthood, the health and development of children’s brains, lungs, immune systems, and other critical functions are affected by the environment they grow up in. For example, children are more likely to suffer from air pollution than adults. Generally, they breathe faster than adults, and their brains, lungs, and other organs are still developing.
“The consequences of climate change are devastating for children,” said UNICEF Executive Director Catherine Russell. “Their bodies and minds are uniquely vulnerable to polluted air, poor nutrition, and extreme heat. Not only is their world changing – with water sources drying up and terrifying weather events becoming stronger and more frequent – so too is their well-being as climate change affects their mental and physical health. Children are demanding change, but their needs are far too often relegated to the sidelines.”
According to the report findings, the greatest share of children are exposed in the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia regions – meaning they live in places with limited water resources and high levels of seasonal and interannual variability, ground water table decline or drought risk.
Far too many children – 436 million - are facing the double burden of high or very high water scarcity and low or very low drinking water service levels – known as extreme water vulnerability – leaving their lives, health, and well-being at risk. It is one of the key drivers of deaths among children under 5 from preventable diseases.
The report shows that those most affected live in low- and middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Central and Southern Asia, and Eastern and South-Eastern Asia. In 2022, 436 million children were living in areas facing extreme water vulnerability. Some of the most impacted countries include Niger, Jordan, Burkina Faso, Yemen, Chad, and Namibia, where 8 out of 10 children are exposed.
In these circumstances, investment in safe drinking water and sanitation services are an essential first line of defense to protect children from the impacts of climate change. Climate change is also leading to increased water stress – the ratio of water demand to available renewable supplies – the report warns. By 2050, 35 million more children are projected to be exposed to high or very high levels of water stress, with the Middle East, and North Africa, and South Asia currently facing the biggest shifts.
Despite their unique vulnerability, children have been either ignored or largely disregarded in discussions about climate change. For example, only 2.4 per cent of climate finance from key multilateral climate funds support projects that incorporate child-responsive activities.
At COP28, UNICEF is calling on world leaders and the international community to take critical steps with and for children to secure a livable planet, including:
- Elevating children within the final COP28 Cover Decision and convene an expert dialogue on children and climate change.
- Embedding children and intergeneration equity in the Global Stocktake (GST).
- Including children and climate resilient essential services within the final decision on the Global Goal for Adaptation (GGA).
- Ensuring the Loss and Damage Fund and funding arrangements are child-responsive with child rights embedded in the fund's governance and decision-making process.
Beyond COP28, UNICEF is calling on parties to take action to protect the lives, health, and well-being of children - including by adapting essential social services, empowering every child to be a champion for the environment, and fulfilling international sustainability and climate change agreements including rapidly reducing emissions.
“Children and young people have consistently made urgent calls for their voices to be heard on the climate crisis, but they have almost no formal role in climate policy and decision-making. They are rarely considered in existing climate adaptation, mitigation or finance plans and actions,” Russell said. “It is our collective responsibility to put every child at the centre of urgent global climate action.”
* Water stress: The ratio of total water demand to available renewable surface and groundwater supplies. Water demand include domestic, industrial, irrigation, and livestock uses. Higher values indicate more competition among users.
Water scarcity: UNICEF’s Children’s Climate Risk Index defines water scarcity based on composite measure of baseline water stress, seasonal variability, interannual variability, ground water table decline and drought risk. Higher values indicate higher exposure to water scarcity risks.
Water vulnerability: UNICEF calculates water vulnerability index based on composite measure of water scarcity (as above) and drinking water service levels. Higher values indicate high levels of water scarcity and low levels of drinking water service.
UNICEF promotes the rights and wellbeing of every child, in everything we do. Together with our partners, we work in 190 countries and territories to translate that commitment into practical action, focusing special effort on reaching the most vulnerable and excluded children, to the benefit of all children, everywhere.
For more information about UNICEF and its work in South Sudan visit: www.unicef.org/southsudan