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UNICEF in South Sudan


Annual reports



Consultant Knowledge Management and Budget Analysis, Juba


Title Consultant Knowledge Management and Budget Analysis
Purpose Technical Assistance for Knowledge Management and Budget Analysis
Consultancy Classification Level Equal to NOC
Location Juba
Duration 4 months (with possibility of extension, if required)
Start Date June 01, 2013
Reporting to Head of Section, Policy Advocacy and Social Protection


The Republic of South Sudan (RSS) was established on 9 July, 2011 after more than five decades of near continuous war that displaced about 4 million people, disrupted socio-economic services and systems, and imposed a heavy toll on the survival and well-being of South Sudanese, especially the children.  As a result of decades of conflict, displacement, and destruction, the new Country is faced with a number of challenges. The major portion of population (over 18 million), is still very young (with 16% under 5, 32% under 10, 51% under 18 and 72% under 30 years of age). Poverty is wide spread in the country and over half of the population (51%) lives below the national poverty line with the share being significantly lower in urban areas (24.4%) compared to rural areas (55.4%), where nearly 83% population lives in rural areas.  Regional disparities in the levels of poverty are also stark. The incidence of income poverty ranges from as low as one quarter of the population in Upper Nile state to three quarters of the population in the Northern Bahr el Ghazal. While the national poverty gap stands at 24%, the level amongst the poor is double (47%). This suggests that half of the poor people in South Sudan could be chronically poor depending on how long there has been a high poverty gap level amongst the poor. Further, the infant mortality rate is 102 per 1,000 live births. The under-5 mortality rate is 135 per 1,000 live births and the maternal mortality rate is high and persistent 2,054 per 100,000 live births.

Although the 2010 Household and Health Survey showed considerable improvements in the situation of children during the period 2006-2010, women and children-related indicators are still among the worst in the world. State structures have only just been established, and delivery systems across all sectors are either absent or dysfunctional. Only 40% of the population has access to healthcare (up from 13% in 2011) while 70% of health facilities rely on Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) for operational support. Primary school attendance is low with gross and net attendance rates of only 65% and 40% respectively. Immunization coverage for children is very low with only 5.8% of children being fully immunized, while access to safe water and sanitation stands at only 6% and 14% respectively. Gender and regional disparities are also significantly pronounced in access to basic social services.  In education, gender parity in primary education is at 0.7 and even lower for secondary education (0.4). Half of all children do not attend school.

In an oil producing Country where the majority of the population lives under the poverty line, allocations to the social sector amount to only 9% of the total national budget in 2011, with a highly inequitable geographical distribution.  Further, in late January 2012, the Government of South Sudan (GOSS) made an unprecedented decision to shut down the oil throughout the Country that accounted for 98% of its revenue. Immediately after shutting-down oil production, the GOSS introduced austerity measures to reduce expenditure. Deciding to minimize economic shocks, the Council of Ministers adopted a minimalist austerity budget that reduced operational and capital costs by 50% and block transfers to states by 10% that had its toll on all social services and it is still unclear that what were the impact of earlier oil shut down, especially on the children and women coming from the most vulnerable, socially excluded and hard to reach areas of the Country. 

Although South Sudan has resumed Oil Production, since April 2013, that is expected to reach Sudan by end of May, 2013, increase in allocation of funds to Social Sector is yet to be confirmed.


The information collected through this assignment will help devise the advocacy strategy for ensuring higher investment for children.

It is critical to better understand the current Government revenue from oil production and non-oil base, current spending in social sector, its future allocations, release of funds, and gaps, through a thorough trend analysis especially for the programs (Health, Nutrition, Immunization, Education, Water & Sanitation and Protection) having direct impact on children.

Specific Tasks

The Consultant is expected to undertake and complete the following specific tasks along with building strong associations with key decision makers from relevant Ministries:

  1. Undertake thorough study, analysis, and subsequent documentation of the current budgetary system(s) in the country, to cover but not limited to the budget allocation processes and mechanisms, and/or the formulae being practiced and followed for the disbursement of government and donor funds to all government sectors across all levels of government and geography (state through to boma levels).
  2. Study and document the existing government coordination channels/linkages (including flow of funds) across all levels of government and other administrative levels in the country, to include the national, state, county, payam, and boma levels. 
  3. Study and document the distribution mechanism(s) employed for the disbursement of government, donor and other resources, financial or otherwise, across all administrative levels of government in the country.
  4. Collect and analyze all data related to government budgets and finances, including donor funds (financial or in kind), for all sectors across all levels of government in the country.

Expected Deliverables

The Consultant is expected to produce the following deliverables or cover all in three independent reports on Budget Processes, Analysis and Opportunities for advocacy:

  1. Comprehensive report on financial data analysis/ trends for the last three financial years (capturing financial allocations to all social ministries – especially: Health, Education, Water & Sanitation, release of funds, utilization rate and gaps). It will be further discussed with programme colleagues from UNICEF;
  2. Comprehensive report on the current budgetary system(s) in the country for budget development, funds allocation, funds release, utilization reports (covering all levels from National to Bomas). This shall also specify the activities that offer potential for UNICEF’s advocacy interventions to ensure increased investment for children, while covering:
    a. Existing coordination mechanisms across all levels of government;
    b. Distribution mechanism(s) employed by government for allocation and disbursement of both government and donor resources, financial or in kind; and
    c. Outcome/ Trends Analysis (performed on data related to both government and donor funds).
  3. Database/Archive of all data related to budgets and finances, possibly both monetary and in kind.


The Consultant will be supervised by Chief, Policy Advocacy and Social Protection, UNICEF South Sudan Country Office. S/he will provide updates to the Section, together with a schedule and frequency agreed with the Supervisor.

Expected background (Qualifications & Experience)

  • Advance University Degree in Social Sciences, International Relations, Political Science, International Finance, Public Administration, or other relevant disciplines;
  • S/ he must be an individual with documented five years of relevant experience along with good analytical, negotiations, communication and high quality report writing skills. 
  • S/ he must be fluent in spoken and written English with knowledge of local languages and cultures of South Sudan. 

General Conditions: 

  • Terms of payment: Monthly payment upon completion of the deliverables. 
  • Note that final payment to a consultant is dependent on the completion of all agreed deliverables. 
  • If due to changing requirements or additional support required by the Ministry or Stakeholders, the duration of assignment can be extended with mutual agreement and revised Terms of Reference. 
  • Both the parties can terminate the contact with one month written notice starting on the first day of the month, however, in case of poor performance the contract can be terminated with immediate effect.

Policy both parties should be aware of:

No contract may commence unless the contract is signed by both UNICEF and the consultant.



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