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Situation Analysis

Examples of Recent Situation Analyses

The following are examples of recently published situation analyses and poverty analyses from Bangladesh, Belize, Brazil, Cambodia, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Republic of Congo, Djibouti, the Eastern Caribbean, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Mali, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nairobi, Nepal, Oman, the Russian Federation, Senegal, Viet Nam and Zambia.

Child Poverty and Disparities in Bangladesh, 2009. A research study towards the Global Study on Child Poverty and Disparities. In Bangladesh, children (0-17 years) constitute 44% of the total population i.e., 142 million in 2006. One out of every six children is a working child (more than seven million children across the country). However, there is no published data on child poverty and deprivation at the national level. This study sketches the scenario of child poverty and deprivation in Bangladesh and provides evidences and insights that can be used as leverage to influence national development plans. The study methodology has been guided by both the UNICEF Study Guide on Child Poverty and Disparities as well as the Bristol indicators of deprivation.

The Situation Analysis of Children and Women in Belize 2011 - An Ecological Review
Social and health programmes are increasingly being understood as occurring within a broad and interconnected framework of contributing factors at multiple levels of society. This rights-focused Situation Analysis is about the importance of the ecology in which children grow. It examines the conditions necessary for the full achievement of children and women’s rights. The attainment of rights and equity is founded on the achievement of social well-being. Therefore, to hasten the attainment of rights, it is necessary to address social well-being. A key message that emerges from the Situation Analysis relates to the importance of early and consistent investments across the lifecycle and how timely, culturally-relevant investments translate into positive outcomes for boys, girls and women. A number of specific recommendations are presented in a continuum of domains — from those that have a more proximal impact to those that have more distal and causal impacts. See also the Executive Summary.

Situação da Infância e da Adolescência Brasileira 2009 — O Direito de Aprender: Potencializar avanços e reduzir desigualdades (In Portuguese).
The Situation of Brazilian Children and Adolescents 2009 — The Right to Learn. Leveraging Advances and Reducing Inequalities report aims to be a driver for social participation, helping to qualify and strengthen the commitment of all, especially families, educators and communities in building a country that guarantees, in full, the right to learn for every child and adolescent. The report highlights the progress and challenges of education in Brazil — the Semiarid, the Amazon, urban community centres, etc. —  focussing more on children and adolescents in situations of vulnerability. The country is very close to universal primary education with improvement in indicators that measure opportunities of access, retention, learning and completion of basic education. As a result, the number of illiterates continues to fall, especially among children and adolescents (the main focus of the Governemnt's educational programmes in recent years). See also the Situation of Brazilian Children and Adolescents  — Quantitative Overview, November 2008 (in English).

Climate Change and Children in the Brazilian Amazon Region, 2009 is a follow-up to Climate Change and Children, produced by UNICEF in 2007, provides an environmental profile of Brazil. It tries to reveal the challenges the country has been facing in recent years in this context and explores why the Amazon is a central theme in any discussion on climate change. After a review of several studeis and reports, the document concludes that human activity affects global climate change, particularly the emission of gases that generate the greenhouse effect and cause global warming.

The State of Brazil's Children, 2006. Children up to the age of 6 years. The Right to Survival and Development. The annual report on the State of Brazil’s Children, 2006 places emphasis on the first 6 years of a child’s life, a phase of fundamental importance for wholesome development of the individual. To this end, integrated child-development programs provide an efficient form of intervention to help children, families, communities, and nations breach the intergenerational poverty cycle. Those first years are forever, and Brazil must give priority to its almost 23 million citizens in this age group.

An Analysis of the Situation of Children & Women in Cambodia 2009, March 2010
The results of Cambodia's economic and social investments over the last two decades can be seen in marked improvements in poverty, health and education, and in the overall standard of living of the population. Positive trends are evident in a number of areas, such as the progress towards gender equality in education, more affordable health care and more responsive state institutions. However, as of 2008, the country remains one of the poorest and least developed in Asia, with growing inequality becoming a major concern for policymakers. A human rights-based approach was applied in the preparation of this Situation Analysis, which measures the extent to which rights of children are being respected, protected and fulfiled in Cambodia.

Situation Analysis of Children and Women in the Central African Republic, 2010 
This situation analysis shows that, since 2001, the structure underpinning the Government's efforts to meet its obligations is fragile. Notwithstanding this, the country remains committed to the fight against poverty, the promotion of human rights, and the pursuit of the MDGs. The analysis looks at the changing political context, emergencies, safety issues, and the realization of children’s rights in situations of instability. The analysis has been disaggregated by gender, age, geographical location, and variations such as the level of education or professional status, to enable a better awareness of the significant differences that exist today in the realization of children’s and women’s rights. The result is a critical analysis that is based on new statistics, national policies, laws and trends, as well as recent research and studies. This Situation Analysis suggests interesting ways to stimulate thinking around the elaboration of a framework for national development policy and assistance.

Pauvreté des enfants et disparités en République Démocratique du Congo, 2008, (in French).
UNICEF initiated this Study to support the Government's efforts to improve sociall well being with particular attention to the situation of children and to break the cycle of intergenerational transmission of poverty. The Study sought to ensure that the priority needs of children are routinely considered in the allocation of resources and the development of poverty alleviation programmes by strengthening the capacity of decision makers and the general public to identify and fill gaps in current strategies. The study shows that Congolese children face both monetary and non-monetary poverty or deprivations. Deprivations affecting the children (i.e. at least 60% of them) are those relating to access to information, toilets and water. The Study recommends prioritization of non-monetary poverty to improve living conditions and increasing the proportion of the national budget allocated to health and education sectors.

La pauvreté multidimensionnelle des enfants et des femmes en République du Congo, 2008, (in French). Until recently, national planners gave priority to issues economic over social issues. The recent integration of social protection in the Republic of Congo's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) is therefore a major opportunity to draw attention to those most vulnerable and struggling against social inequalities. This study, which complements an earlier World Bank study, analyes multidimensional, non-monetary poverty, particularly access to basic social services for children and women. This innovative approach allows the assessment of the relative risk of poverty for children and women. The study highlights the extent of children living below the poverty line — 54% against 47% for adults — a fact largely unknown to date and concludes that children and women have a higher risk of poverty than men.  The study has been produced by UNICEF in partnership with the Republic of Congo, the University of Maastricht, the University of Marien Ngouabi and the Centre National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques.

Analysis of the Situation of Women and Children in the Republic of Djibouti, 2007 (in French).
This situation analysis has been undertaken in the context of the preparation of a new programme of cooperation between UNICEF and the Government of Djibouti covering 2008-2012, and as a complement to the Common Country Assessment made by the UN country team. The analysis was also based on new data provided by the Multiple Indicator Survey preliminary report. The situation of children has been addressed in terms of the life cycle — early childhood (0-5 years), children of school age (6-14 years), and adolescents and youth (15-24 years) — with a special emphasis on child protection. The Analysis was undertaken with a human rights based approach in relation to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.

Situation Analysis of children and women in the Eastern Caribbean, 2007. The 10 countries covered by this report include Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, the British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and the Turks and Caicos Islands. These countries are political stable, have open and competitive democratic systems, and have social indicators that point to the commitment of governments to improve the quality of life of residents. Despite these considerable advances, countries face unique challenges in providing services to children and their famlies. Using a rights based framework, review and synthesis of existing data, and consultations with partners and stakeholders including children, this Situation Analysis examines progress in the achievement of the rights of children and women and identifies gaps and priorities for future action.

Children in Six Districts of Upper Egypt: A Situation Analysis
Children’s rights are among the country’s utmost concerns. This analysis is intended to deepen knowledge and understanding of the regional disparities described in the national Situation Analysis undertaken by UNICEF in 2002. It is critical to the success of programmes in the area, enabling an evidence-based approach and providing baseline indicators on children’s rights and well-being as we support change. The successes and challenges chronicled in this analysis will allow directing efforts more precisely to those most in need of assistance — in other words, to “reach the un-reached” — while simultaneously ensuring sustainability of these services.

The Situation of Children in India - A Profile, May 2011
Increased government allocations to social sector programmes in line with its commitment to inclusive growth, a progressive policy environment, and a slew of social protection schemes, decentralised planning and governance have all contributed to improving the lives of India’s children and women. But with nearly half a billion children in this country, a lot more remains to be done to ensure the survival, growth and development of India’s greatest asset: its children. Stubbornly high malnutrition rates, poor sanitation and persistent disparities between states, social groups and the rich and the poor are just some of the obstacles that India faces in ensuring that every child is reached. The report provides snapshots of the situation of children and women from 18 states of the country. In addition to demographic information of children and women in 18 states, the report details progress agaist MDGs and child protection indicators. Equity status of key indicators on children and women are also presented for each state.

Working Towards Progress with Equity Under Decentralisation: The Situation of Children and Women in Indonesia 2000-2010, 2011
The multiple political, fiscal, and economic crises in the late 1990s saw devastating effects for much of the Indonesian population, but for women and children in particular. The financial crisis created an opportunity for revising traditional poverty reduction strategies and, in spite of the instability the country found itself in, there has been progress in the situation of children and women. For some indicators, measured nationally, the country is on track to reach the MDGs. The Government has introduced a range of measures in the form of health and education social safety net programmes, as well as cash and conditional cash transfer programmes to offset the worst impacts of the crisis for the most vulnerable populations - the poor and the children. Despite these improvements, geographic, economic, gender, income, and other disparities remain. The Situation Analysis provides recommendations for the Government, international and local donor agencies, and other key stakeholders to act on for further improving child rights and welfare.

Promoting the Rights of Children in Iraq. Rekindling Hope In A Time of Crisis. Situation Analysis, August 2007 (also in Arabic)
This report analyzes the conditions of Iraqi children today within the limitations imposed by available data and rapidly changing conditions due to the growing humanitarian crisis. It seeks to identify the causes of the present situation, assess development responses, and recommend priority interventions. The human rights to which children are entitled under international conventions inform the analysis, which children’s rights during different stages of their life cycle approach. Throughout, the voices of Iraqis themselves — the youth, the civil servants, and civil society — are recorded to communicate what it is like to be a child in Iraq today and to work for children’s rights.

Children in Jordan, Situation Analysis 2006-2007 (also in Arabic)
Fulfilling the rights of children will also help ensure the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This is where the Situation Analysis of Children in Jordan is such an exceptional tool. UNICEF supported the development of the Situation Analysis in an innovative and participatory way in consultation with members of governmental and non-governmental bodies, young people, members of disadvantaged communities, and children with disabilities or those living in institutions. The analysis focused on the different phases of childhood. The gender lens was also applied for the different age groups to compare the situation between girls and boys. In addition, the impact of the mother’s status on aspects of their children’s lives was considered, along with factors that have a bearing on women’s own status.

Situation of Children and Women in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, 2006
As the basis for UNICEF’s work in the country, this analysis is meant to illuminate and expound on the linkages between the prevailing conditions that impact on the situation of women and children.  The life-cycle perspective employed promotes a holistic analysis that unifies many sectoral and contextual issues. It illuminates the intergenerational perspective necessary for dealing with both chronic crisis and longer-term development. In short, it is useful in understanding the totality of children and women’s needs and interests and the causalities between them.

Pauvreté des enfants et inégalités au Mali, November 2008 (in French)
This study offers a unique opportunity to simultaneously combine several methods of measuring poverty to better understand the holistic dimensions of poverty. The study offers a snapshot of the state of children in Mali, of the deprivation and disparities children face in terms of nutrition, education, access to basic health services, access to water and housing. The study was conducted by the Direction Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Informatique (DNSI) of the Ministry of Economics, Industry and Commerce in partnership with the University of Mali, UNICEF, Macro International, and Bristol University in the United Kingdom.

The Rights of Children and Adolescents in Mexico: A Present Day Agenda, April 2010. (Also in Spanish.)
Occupying the 13th place in the world econonmy and second largest in Latin America, Mexico has made notable progress in reducing malnutrition and infant mortality, increasing coverage of primary school and basic education and adapting its legal framework to the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Yet, significant socio-economic disparities and widespread inequality persist, impeding the rights of millions of children. This report presents an Agenda for building a Mexico that places children and adolescents at the heart of the country's legal reform and policy-making to ensure that their rights are fulfilled and that they have optimal conditions for development.

Situation Analysis of Children and Women in Mongolia, 2009
The 2007 Situation Analysis of children and women in Mongolia has been updated to describe the current socio-economic context, the impact of the global financial crisis and the status of the MDGs. Investments by the Government of Mongolia over the last decade and a half have been paying significant dividends in the social sectors and, at a national aggregate level, Mongolia seems to be doing very well and is on track in meeting a majority of the MDGs. Remaining challenges include the high levels of stunting for children under five, poor access to safe water and sanitation, and the emerging problem of child protection. Progress against these challenges are hampered by persistent poverty and the existence of significant socioeconomic, gender and geographic disparities.

La Situation Des Enfants Au Maroc. Analyse selon l’approche basée sur les droits humains, 2007 (in French)
Using a human rights-based approach to analyze the evolution of the situation of children in Morocco during the last five years, we can identify the principal failures with respect to the rights of the children, analyze the causes, and thereafter generate the strategies for each level of non-realization of these rights. The application of a rights-based approach to the period 2001-2005 shows that the country has unquestionably achieved significant progress on child rights, in particular on the rights to protection, education, health and participation. The adoption of the Plan d’Action National pour l’Enfance (PANE), the new family Code which returns dignity to the Moroccan woman and protects the girl, the reform of the law on nationality, and the harmonization of criminal justice with the Convention of the Rights of the Child are some of the factors that have enabled progress.

Child Poverty in Mozambique. A Situation and Trend Analysis, 2006
The report was written by a lead team comprised of the Ministry of Planning and Development and UNICEF and was developed through a consultative process, with the participation of representatives of the Government, the UN family, bilateral and multilateral donors, non-governmental and civil society organisations and children. It is intended to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive reference for all stakeholders involved in the fight against childhood poverty, highlighting the varied and interrelated challenges faced by both Mozambican children and by development partners seeking to address those challenges. This in turn is intended to inform the development and implementation of policies that help to reduce childhood poverty and strategies to reach the most vulnerable and marginalised children.

Children and Adolescents in Namibia 2010 - a situation analysis
This comprehensive situation analysis shows significant progress by the country since its independence in 1990 towards achieving the MDGs and the national development targets to ensure the rights of Namibia’s children are met. Yet, significant disparities persist across the country in child poverty, survival, development, and access to essential services. Reaching the poorest and most marginalized children and communities is pivotal to the achievement of the MDGs and the realisation of Vision 2030. The process of developing the document was innovative. It included an extensive literature and research review, over 50 key informant interviews, and focus group discussions with over 200 children and adolescents across the country. By using a life cycle approach, the report clearly identifies issues that are pertinent for children under five, in the primary school age, and during adolescence. The focus on adolescents is key as it is during these years that they face many and varied challenges. As the situation analysis points out, there is a need for greater depth of qualitative and quantitative information about this time in their lives.

Situation of Children and Women in Nepal, 2006
This document on the situation of children and women in Nepal focuses its analysis on patterns of exclusion and why it is so. It aims to be a source of improved understanding and appreciation for the development challenges present in Nepal today: their complexity, trend over time, and responses. While the contours of the overall impact of conflict are also noted, the situation changes frequently and is often not the same in two districts. The report gives us up to date analysis (problems and causes) for children and women in Nepal across all sectors of relevance for UNICEF, to be base for planning the next country programme and to feed into the UN CCA for the next, harmonize cycle.

Beyond 2003: Situation Analysis of Children and Women in Oman, 2006
Vision 2020, the strategic plan prepared by Oman's Ministry of National Economy (MoNE) makes explicit provisions for the continued health of the welfare state, which underpins the well-being of Omani children. The major issues identified in this Situation Analysis include improving the database on children in order to allow a full range of monitoring of child rights, decreasing regional and gender disparities, institution building and community participation, and sustainability and Omanization of service provision while maintaining quality. These new challenges often hidden by the impressive gains of recent years emphasize the continued need for UNICEF involvement in Oman and the need for new modes of UNICEF intervention and support in the future.

Situation Analysis of Children in the Russian Federation, 2007
This Situation Analysis of children and women in the Russian Federation strives to assess the progress for children regarding advances towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which address poverty and hunger, child and maternal mortality and HIV and other diseases, while also promoting universal primary education,gender equality, environmental sustainability and a global partnership for development by 2015. The report focuses its attention upon the underlying and structural causes of problems that children face; it indicates how the Government is addressing these problems; and proposes further actions to accelerate progress. The report argues that increased attention to the implementation of child rights and investment in children will create a platform for successful, stable and sustainable development in Russia.

Etude sur la pauvreté et les disparités chez les enfants au Sénégal, September 2009 (in French)
The study seeks to raise awareness of policies and programmes that support more effectively the rights of all children, boys and girls, in Senegal. The situation of children has been analyzed in multiple dimensions including monetary, education, health, water and sanitation and shelter but also comfort. The problems identified as well as the causal analysis carried out have shown both the existence of problems specific to children as well as those general to the country. A major finding of the study is that education is an effective means of eliminating medium-term (10 years) deprivations that impede the development of children and is a priority for the Government. Another priority area for the Government is social protection for vulnerable persons. The analysis indicates that multisectorality should be the rule for interventions that are intended to benefit children.

Situation Analysis of Children in South Africa, April 2009
The Presidency (Office of the Rights of the Child) commissioned the Children’s Institute at the University of Cape Town to undertake this analysis with support from UNICEF. A reference group that included officials from the Presidency, Statistics South Africa, Departments of Health, Social Development, Education, UNICEF, Child Welfare and the National Children’s Rights Committee guided the process which applied a human-rights based approach. The analysis has benefitted from the consultative activities that the Office on the Rights of the Child conducted with children in all nine provinces. The report identifies recent trends with regard to children’s rights as well as continuing challenges. While recognising achievements, the analysis pays special attention to children who are deprived from exercising one or another of their rights. The policies and programmes implemented to address the challenges that impede the realization of children's rights are explored to the extent that data allows. The report finds that significant progress has been made in promoting the rights of South African children (such as in primary health care, improvement in access to and quality of education, early childhood development, social protection, and safety of children).

An analysis of the situation of children in Viet Nam 2010
Viet Nam has achieved rapid economic success and remarkable social progress in just over two decades, reaching lower middle-income status in 2009. The country has achieved almost all the the MDGs at the national level and is on track to achieve the others. The single most important message of the Situation Analysis relates to the need to reduce disparities in outcomes for the child and adolescent population in Viet Nam. Poor children, ethnic minority children, children with disabilities, children affected by HIV and AIDS all continue to suffer from unequal access to social services, threatening their ability to grow into healthy and productive members of Vietnamese society. Related documents include: An analysis of the situation of children in Dien Bien - which provides a holistic picture of the situation of girls and boys, including an in-depth analysis of remaining challenges that children face. Children in Viet Nam – who and where are the poor?, November 2008 provides a multidimensional approach to measure and understand child poverty in Viet Nam.

Zambia -Situation Analysis of Children and Women 2008
Zambia's Fifth National Development Plan showed the benefits of the Government and partners aligning their efforts around a common framework for development. This Situation Analysis, which reviews progress and lessons learned from the alignment of the Government and partners over a common development framework, is very timely as it coincides with the preparations for Zambia's Sixth National Development Plan for 2011-2015. There is a strong commitment to accelerating results for the survival and development of Zambia’s children and women, and there is a greatly improved operating environment for implementing the necessary activities. This synthesis report describes trends and changes in results for Zambian children, identifying the factors that drive the on-going deprivation and vulnerability that affect so many and analysing the achievements and challenges to our efforts to achieve significant improvements. Embodying the spirit of partnership, the report too is a collaborative effort between the Government and its partners including UNICEF, Irish Aid, the UK DFID.




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