10 Fast Facts: Menstrual health in schools

Global UNICEF and WHO report reveals major gaps in menstrual health and hygiene in schools

27 May 2024
A teacher educates students about menstruation at the UNICEF-supported Fatah Girls School in Herat, Afghanistan.

NEW YORK, GENEVA, 28 May 2024 – Around the world, menstrual health and hygiene needs are being overlooked due to limited access to information, education, products and services, as well as inadequate facilities and inequalities.

A new report: Progress on drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools 2000-2023: special focus on menstrual health – launched by UNICEF and WHO on Menstrual Hygiene Day – analyses for the first time emerging national data on menstrual health and hygiene in schools globally.

Ten key facts from the report:

  • Worldwide, only 2 out of 5 schools (or 39 per cent) provide menstrual health education. This increases in secondary schools. 84 per cent of secondary schools in Central and Southern Asia, for example, provide menstrual education, compared to just 34 per cent in primary schools.
  • Less than 1 in 3 schools (or 31 per cent) globally have bins for menstrual waste in girls’ toilets. This drops to 1 in 5 schools in least developed countries (or 17 per cent), and only 1 in 10 schools (or 11 per cent) in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Menstrual products are not always readily available, with many unable to afford them. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, only 1 in 8 schools (or 12 per cent) provide menstrual materials for free or for purchase.
  • In many countries, adolescent schoolgirls do not have access to a clean toilet or other dedicated private space to change menstrual products in school.
  • Unequal access to water and soap is an additional issue for millions of adolescent schoolgirls. Girls in urban areas, private schools and girls-only schools are more likely to have access to a private place with water and soap, highlighting inequalities even within the same country.
  • Millions around the world are unaware or unprepared for menstruation before having their first period. A study in Ethiopia, for example, reveals that less than half the surveyed girls knew about their periods before their first time.
  • Studies show that stigma related to menstruation remains widespread, with adolescents often feeling ashamed or unable to openly discuss the topic. This shame can affect their mental health and school attendance.
  • No national datasets have been identified on how many teachers are trained to teach about menstrual hygiene, indicating a significant gap in educational support. Teachers play a crucial role in providing accurate information and creating a supportive environment, but without proper training they are ill-equipped to address students' needs.
  • Only 30 countries, over one-third of which are in sub-Saharan Africa, have relevant data tracking at least one of the globally recommended priority indicators. This lack of data hampers efforts to understand and address the issues comprehensively.
  • While countries such as Zambia and the Philippines have shown marked improvements in making menstrual products and services available in schools, more needs to be done. Change is possible with targeted policies and investments.

The report underscores the urgent need for global action to improve menstrual health and hygiene in schools. By addressing these issues, every schoolgirl can manage her menstruation with dignity, safety, and confidence.

The report also includes progress on broader access to water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools. Today, 1 in 5 children (447 million) still lack basic drinking water services at their school, 1 in 5 lack basic sanitation services (427 million), and 1 in 3 children (646 million) don’t have access to basic hygiene services, according to latest data.

Achieving the relevant Sustainable Development Goal by 2030 will require a two-fold increase in current rates of progress for basic drinking water, a two-fold increase for basic sanitation, and a four-fold increase for basic hygiene services. 


Notes to Editors

The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) report - Progress on drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools 2000-2023: special focus on menstrual health – compiles data on global progress towards achieving universal access to safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and for the first time includes a section on menstrual health. The emerging data measures global progress against several indicators which shed light on how many adolescent schoolgirls are not yet able to meet their menstrual needs across the world, and the efforts required until we are able to create a period-friendly world for all.

National data availability for menstrual health remains limited and indicator definitions vary making cross-country comparison difficult. Global and regional estimates are aggregates and should be treated as such.

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About JMP

The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene is responsible for monitoring global progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets and indicators related to drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The JMP produces national, regional, and global estimates of progress on WASH in households, schools, and healthcare facilities.