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Journalism codes from around the world
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The following are extracts from The PressWise Trust's analysis
of journalism codes of conduct. Full details of the codes can be
found on the Trust's website.
Code of Honour of Austrian Press, Austrian Press Council (1983)
3 When dealing with the private sphere, the public interest for
information and the interest of the individual and his/her close
ones' privacy must be balanced. Reports of the 'false steps' of
juveniles must not hinder or make more difficult their resocialization.
In such cases the names must be shortened.
Code of Ethics, Croatian Journalists' Association (1993)
16 A journalist is to protect a person's private life from unjustified
or sensational exposure to the public. Special care and responsibility
is needed in reporting about accidents, family tragedies, diseases,
children and minors, or court proceedings, where the journalist
must respect presumed innocence, integrity, dignity and feelings
of all the persons involved. In political confrontations the journalist
is to respect civil rights and freedoms of the participants, and
make efforts to remain impartial.
The Code of Ethics of the Estonian Press, Estonian Press Council
3.6 Minors shall be interviewed, as a general rule, only in the
presence of or with the consent of the parent or guardian. Exceptions
can be made to this rule if the interview is intended to protect
the interests of the child or if the child is already under close
German Press Council (1994)
Reports on cases under criminal investigation or sub judice
must be devoid of all preconceived opinion. Before and during such
proceedings, therefore, the press shall avoid making any comment
in the heading or body of a report which could be construed as partisan
or prejudicial to the issue. An accused person must not be presented
as a guilty party before legal judgement has been pronounced. Wherever
possible in the case of minor offences committed by juveniles, names
and identifying photographs should not be published out of consideration
for the young persons' future. Court rulings should not be reported
prior to their official announcement without sound legal justification.
When reporting on juvenile crime and juvenile court proceedings,
the press should exercise restraint out of consideration for the
future of the young people concerned. This recommendation also applies
to reports on juvenile victims of crime. As a general rule, there
is no objection to the publication of photographs and names of missing
young persons. These should only be published, however, with the
agreement of the relevant authorities.
Radio Telefis Eireann (RTÉ) Guidelines on Children in
Broadcasting (reviewed annually)
Also adopted by the National Union of Journalists (Ireland)
1 The engagement of children for programmes
The involvement of children in RTÉ programme making requires
special attention so as to provide for their protection and safety
and to ensure that their attendance on programme activities does
not seriously interfere with their school attendance nor reduce
the time children would normally spend at home, rest or play. It
is essential that the consent of parents or a guardian is obtained
before a child takes part in a programme. If such an engagement
involves attendance during school hours the school principal should
be consulted generally and should have given permission for the
absence from school involved. The following guidelines are intended
to give effect to these considerations:
1.1 A child should be construed as a person under the age of 15
1.2 The consent of a parent or guardian must be obtained before
a child attends for any rehearsal or performance.
1.3 RTÉ shall appoint an adult (who could also be a parent
or guardian or teacher) to chaperone children and supervise their
welfare and discipline whilst on RTÉ's premises or on location.
1.4 If a child or other person still at school is required for
rehearsal or performances during normal school hours the school
principal should be consulted beforehand and permission for the
1.5 The use of a child of a very tender age is to be avoided except
when this is essential in the context of the programme. The producer
concerned shall be satisfied that the child will at all times be
in the care of a parent or guardian.
1.6 As a general rule children should be present at RTÉ
studios or on location during daylight hours only. Persons under
15 years of age should not normally be required to attend for rehearsal
or performance between 9pm and 9am.
1.7 A child engaged for a part in a dramatic programme or film
should not be required to attend for more than 10 hours on any day
and provision should be made for adequate meal and rest breaks and
a long break between the end of production on one day and the start
of rehearsal or performance on a following day.
1.8 In the exceptional circumstances of location work outside the
main RTÉ studios being involved the producer concerned must
ensure that toilet and washing-up facilities are available and that
there is adequate protection against bad weather.
1.9 Children should be kept under strict supervision at all times
and they should not be permitted to leave the area in which their
presence is required.
1.10 Children must not be permitted to take part in any dangerous
or hazardous performance.
1.11 Except for a valid script requirement in a dramatic programme,
a child should not be involved in any portrayal of any violence,
family quarrel, strong or blasphemous language.
1.12 Only young persons of 15 years of age and upwards may be engaged
on a fee basis. If desired, items such as book vouchers may be given
to children and proper expenses allowed. Where a child has been
engaged for a dramatic or entertainment programme or film then a
fee may be paid to the parents or guardian of the child or to the
establishment which coaches and provides the services of the child
for the programme.
1.13 Children should not take part in a programme in which money
or other prizes are given except that children participating in
programmes for schools or children's programmes such as quizzes
may be given gifts such as book vouchers and the like for taking
1.14 Director of Legal Affairs should be consulted in advance in
regard to any formal contracting arrangements that may be deemed
necessary in regard to the engagement of children.
1.15 The responsibility for ensuring that these regulations are
observed rests with the Head of the Programme Department concerned.
2 Children in studio audiences
2.1 Children should attend at RTÉ's studios for children's
programmes only, and except in any special circumstances approved
by the Director of Programmes concerned, children should not be
admitted into the audience for entertainment programmes or talk
shows or other programmes being recorded or to be broadcast after
9pm. Tickets for such audiences should clearly indicate that children
will not be admitted. Children attending as part of an audience
for a children's programme should be accompanied to the RTÉ
studio by a parent, teacher or other responsible adult.
2.2 Tickets for an audience involving children should preferably
be distributed through schools, youth clubs and the like or at the
request of parents or guardians. Tickets should normally not be
issued on a casual basis to children.
2.3 Very young children and children in arms should not be admitted
into a studio except where such attendance may be necessary for
such as a kindergarten or child care programme and in such cases
special welfare arrangements may be required.
2.4 No fee, gift or other consideration is given to members of
a studio audience in respect of their attendance. In the case of
children from a school or youth club or the like being invited to
a studio audience and also to participate in the programme the producer
may make reasonable transport arrangements for such groups.
3 Children and young persons in programmes and news
3.1 As a firm rule RTÉ should not publish in any programme
or news bulletin the name, address, school attended or other close
identification of any child or young person (under 17 years) appearing
in court, including an appearance as a witness, except where any
judge may have requested the media to do so.
3.2 Great care should always be exercised in interviewing any child
in reference to any tragic or harrowing experience such as a bomb
explosion, tragedy at sea, fire, domestic tragedy and the like.
Children should not be interviewed to elicit views on private family
matters or in matters more appropriate to adult discussion.
3.3 The portrayal in children's programmes of anti-social behaviour
by children, eg, malicious or bullying behaviour towards other children
or serious disregard for parental authority is to be avoided.
3.4 Special care should be exercised in the case of programmes
likely to attract a young audience in regard to smoking, the taking
of alcohol and any reference to the use of drugs so as not to promote
the acceptability of these habits among young people.
3.5 Strict regulations are enforced by RTÉ regarding the
portrayal of children in broadcast advertisements and are detailed
in RTÉ's Code of Standards for Broadcast Advertising.
Duties of Journalists, National Federation of the Italian Press
and the National Council Order of Journalists (1993)
Children or frail people
A journalist should respect all principles contained in the ONU
Convention, 1989, on the rights of children, and the rules confirmed
by the Treviso Ethic Code (Carta di Treviso) to protect children,
their characters and personalities, both as active protagonists
and as a victims of a common law offence. Particularly:
a) a journalist should not publish names or anything else which
might lead to the identification of children who are perpetrators
or victims of common offences;
b) a journalist must resist pressure from adults in stories involving
children and use his own judgement exclusively;
c) however, stories which are to the benefit of children should
Code of Ethics of the Lithuanian Journalists, Lithuanian Union
of Journalists, Lithuanian Association of Journalists, Association
of Publishers of Periodicals, Lithuanian Radio and Television Association,
Lithuanian Radio and Television, Lithuanian Centre of Journalism
52 The journalist shall show particular respect to the rights of
the children and adults with physical or mental incapacity.
Ethical Code of Practice for the Press, Norwegian Press Association
4.8 As a general rule the identity of children should not be disclosed
in reports on family disputes or cases under consideration by the
child care authorities or by the courts.
Syndicato de Periodistas del Paraguay
8 Journalists must safeguard the innocence of the accused until
the courts have passed sentence. At the same time they should abstain
from identifying victims of sexual crimes whatever their age or
social condition without their consent. The same applies to minors
that might have participated in a crime.
Code of Professional Ethics, Journalists' Association of Peru
Art. 6: Acts against professional ethics are:
a) To attempt restriction against freedom of thought and expression;
b) To allow unawareness of human rights violations;
c) To allow unawareness of situations which endanger or threaten
life and health;
d) To violate the right of privacy of persons;
e) To attempt restriction against the protection that family, the
child, and the young deserve; and
f) Not to keep a professional secret or to use it for the benefit
Philippine Press Institute (1997)
III (5) We shall avoid at all times language, photographs, visuals
and graphics that are racist, sexist, insensitive and disrespectful
of men, women and children, the religious denominations, cultural
communities, and gender and political preferences.
Guidelines on the Coverage of Crimes Against Women and Minors
Proposed by participants in the seminar/workshop on the coverage
of violent crimes against women and minors, 3 to 5 December 1993,
at the Development Academy of the Philippines, Tagaytay City.
Recognize the victims' right to decide whether to be identified
i) Withhold the identity of the victim and suspect (until indictment).
ii) Make sure the consent given is free and informed consent.
Do not assume consent until expressly given.
Determine if the victim is in the right frame of mind to
Broadcast reporters/editors should take care that filming/reporting/recording
of such crimes do not violate the above principle.
Recognize the right to dignity of victims, especially in death.
i) Do not use photos of victims who are naked, scantily clad, or
in otherwise degrading states.
ii) Do not photograph or use photos of minors as victims or suspects.
iii) Use graphics, line shots, other illustrations to visually
supplement the reportage.
iv) Do not trivialize the reality of violent crimes with the use
of humour, cartoons etc.
v) Do not place reports of violence next to pin-ups and other items
which heighten their titillating value.
vi) Do not use photos or any visual depiction of confrontations
between the victims, the victims' family, and the accused in police
stations and other law enforcement agencies.
Crimes of violence against women and children should be reported
factually and seriously.
i) Reporters should not use words and phrases which tend to pass
judgement on the victim and/or suspect, eg, prostitute, pretty,
sexy, former dancer, sex maniac, drug addicts etc.
ii) Eliminate details/descriptions which tend to titillate readers/viewers
and sensationalize the story or ridicule the victims.
iii) The general rule: do not use obscene, profane or vulgar terms
in a story unless they are part of direct quotations and there is
a strong, compelling reason to use them.
Portuguese Syndicate of Journalists (1993)
7 The journalist has to guarantee the presumption of innocence
until the case is finished. The journalist must not identify, directly
or indirectly, the victims of sexual crimes or juvenile criminals
nor must he/she humiliate people or aggravate their pain.
Republic of Korea
Press Ethics Code (1986)
4 (3) Since the words 'group suicide' can be an inaccurate expression
in case it involves children and other family members not willing
to die, accurate expression shall be used depending on the incident.
At no time should such incidents be reported in a way that caters
to the public's curiosity, nor should they be beautified.
10 Children's newspapers or columns and advertisements on medicine
for venereal diseases (1 June 1966)
On newspapers where advertisements or medicines for venereal disease
are carried, no children's columns shall be used.
Congress of Russian Journalists (1994)
5 The journalist sustains the principle that any person is not
guilty as far as the opposite has not been proved in court. In his
communications he avoids mentioning the names of the relatives and
friends of the persons found guilty or charged for committing a
crime - excluding the circumstances when it is necessary to the
objective presentation of the case. He also avoids mentioning the
names of the victims of the crime and publishing that kind of material
which leads to the identification of the victim. With the special
strictness these norms should be observed when the journalistic
communication may harm the interests of minors.
Code of Journalists, Journalists of the Republic of Slovenia
8 A journalist protects the personality and privacy of a person
against unjustified and sensationalistic revealing to the public.
A journalist is especially tactful and considerate when reporting
on accidents, tragic events in families, diseases, children and
Code for the Journalistic Profession, Federation of the Spanish
4 (d) Special attention shall be paid to the treatment of issues
which concern children and youth. The right of privacy of minors
shall be respected.
Statement on the Principles of the Catalan Journalism Profession,
Catalan Journalists Association (1992)
11 To deal with special care all kind of news concerning children.
There must be no identification when they appear as being victims
(except in the case of murder), witness or accused in criminal prosecutions,
especially in those cases of great social repercussion, such as
sexual offences. Nor should the journalist identify, against their
will, those related people or innocent relatives of persons accused
or condemned in criminal trials.
United Republic of Tanzania
Media Council of Tanzania
The rights of the child
Part three of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania
provides basic rights under Articles 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,
19, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24.
Tanzania is also a signatory to the UN Convention on the Rights
of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of
the Child all of which obligate governments to protect the child
from all forms of physical and mental violence, injury or abuse,
neglect or negligent treatment.
Governments also have the obligation to protect children from engaging
in work that constitutes a threat to their health, education or
development and to regulate conditions of employment.
Although Tanzania ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the
Child on 26 May 1991 it is however yet to legislate specific enactment
into laws so that the rights contained in the Convention can be
considered enforceable. As a result, the provisions of the Convention
cannot be invoked in a court of law.
Broadcasting Standards Commission Guidelines
32 Children's vulnerability must be a prime concern for broadcasters.
They do not lose their rights to privacy because of the fame or
notoriety of their parents or because of events in their schools.
Care should be taken that a child's gullibility or trust is not
abused. They should not be questioned about private family matters
or asked for views on matters likely to be beyond their capacity
to answer properly. Consent from parents or those in loco parentis
should normally be obtained before interviewing children under 16
on matters of significance. Where consent has not been obtained
or actually refused, any decision to go ahead can only be justified
if the item is of overriding public interest and the child's appearance
is absolutely necessary.
Similarly, children under 16 involved in police enquiries or court
proceedings relating to sexual offences should not be identified
or identifiable in news or other programmes.
The Independent Television Commission's
This Code includes a section on family viewing, offence to good
taste and decency, portrayal of violence and respect for human dignity.
It can be read in full on the Independent Television Commission's
Radio Authority Programme Code 2 (1993)
Violence, sex, taste and decency, children and young people,
appeals for donations, religion and other matters
1 Taste and decency and the portrayal of violence
1.4 Children and young persons
The Radio Authority believes that adult radio listeners have the
right to enjoy material which would not be thought suitable for
children. However, Licence Holders must be aware of circumstances
such that large numbers of children and young persons might be expected
to be listening. Adult material must not be broadcast at the times
when a Licence Holder regularly directs his programmes at children
and young persons by the inclusion of music, stories or speech items
acknowledged to be specifically attractive to children and young
people below the age of 18.
Adult programmes include drama where strong language or violent
scenarios might occur, discussion or 'phone-in' programmes which
cover explicit violent or sexual topics in a frank manner and musical
items with violent or sexually explicit lyrics unless the programmes
have educational aims.
3.5 Interviewing of children
All interviews with children (people aged 15 and below) require
care. Children must not be interrogated to elicit views on private
family matters nor asked for expressions of opinion on matters likely
to be beyond their judgement.
Other matters affecting children are listed under 4.6 'Reports
on young offenders' and 5.5 'Appearances by children in programmes'.
4.5 Reports on young offenders
Under the Children and Young Persons Acts 1933 and 1969, it may
be an offence to publish the names or addresses of persons aged
17 or under who are involved in court proceedings, or to publish
any information calculated to reveal their identity if the court
so directs (see 5.2 'Contempt of court').
4.6 Children in sex cases
Radio reports should not, even where the law does not prohibit
it, identify children under the age of 16 who are involved in cases
concerning sexual offences, whether as victims or as witnesses or
In any report of a case involving a sexual offence against a child
1 The adult may be identified.
2 The term 'incest' where applicable should not be used.
3 The offences should be described as 'serious offences against
young children' or similar appropriate wording.
4 The child should not be identified.
5 Care should be taken that nothing broadcast implies any relationship
between the accused and the child.
4.7 Smoking and drinking
The editorial content of Licence Holders' programmes must not endorse
smoking and drinking and these activities should not be mentioned
unless the context or dramatic veracity requires it.
Tobacco and alcohol are social drugs whose consumption carries
no particular stigma even though they can constitute a major health
risk and may be as addictive as drugs which are less socially approved,
or actually illegal.
Particular care is needed with programmes likely to be heard by
children and young people. Programmes made specially for children
should not normally contain any reference to smoking or drinking
of alcohol unless an educational point is being made, or unless,
very exceptionally, the dramatic context makes it absolutely essential.
4.8 Drug taking and solvent abuse
Drugs, drug addiction and their effect are valid subjects for radio
programmes. However, no impression should be given that drugs are
a desirable feature of British society, particularly in programmes
of special appeal to children and young people. The same caution
must be applied to solvent abuse (glue sniffing etc) and descriptions
of such practices that could easily be imitated must be avoided.
5.5 Appearances by children in programmes
Performances by children under the upper limit of compulsory school
age are controlled by Home Office regulations administered by Education
Authorities. All such performances, apart from those appearances
expressly exempted under the Children and Young Persons Acts, require
a licence from the Education Authority responsible for the area
in which the child lives. Parental consent alone is not enough (some
special restrictions also apply to young people above school age
but under 18 years).
The law on public performance by children is complex. Licence Holders
should be familiar with the general regulations. Producers of entertainment
programmes should be familiar with the main points that have to
be borne in mind. Producers of news and current affairs programmes,
or other programmes in which such appearances are a comparative
rarity, should take advice when the use of a child is contemplated.
Casual, phone-in contributions from children in their leisure time
fall outside these requirements.
The purpose of the regulation is to ensure that a child's education,
health, and general well-being are not harmed by employment as a
public performer. There are detailed rules covering, for example,
arrangements for tuition, the number of consecutive days and hours
of work (varying according to the child's age), proper meal and
rest breaks, and so on.
5.6 Protection of children from indecency
The Protection of Children Act 1978 is aimed at preventing the
exploitation of children under 16 by pornographers. Some provisions
in the Act, however, widen its scope and apply to radio programmes.
The Act does not define what is 'indecent'. However, the courts
have said that, whilst something is indecent or obscene if it offends
against recognized standards of propriety, it is the exclusive province
of a jury to decide whether or not the matter is indecent or obscene.
Because of this vague definition of 'indecency', it is not possible
to lay down hard-and-fast rules about what is, or what is not, permissible.
Where doubt exists Licence Holders should take legal advice.
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
Children and programmes
Children can be involved in programmes in a number of ways; as
actors, interviewees, participants in or subjects of a programme
and even, occasionally, as programme makers themselves. The use
of children in programmes often requires handling with great care:
it can be difficult for programme makers to strike a balance between
competing interests - of the child, of the parent, and of the audience
as a whole.
In the UK there are various laws designed to protect children.
But wherever in the world the BBC operates, programme makers must
have due regard for the welfare of children who take part in their
We should respect the interests of children as viewers and listeners
of BBC programmes too, whether these programmes are aimed specifically
at them, or at a general audience.
Consult the Taste and Decency, Violence, and Imitative and Anti
Social Behaviour chapters of these guidelines, for advice on the
BBC's policies on children's viewing and listening.
It will often be appropriate to seek the consent of parents or
legal guardians before interviewing young children, or otherwise
involving them in programmes, and the younger or more vulnerable
the child, and the more sensitive the subject matter, the more likely
it is that consent will be essential. If children are to take part
in programme making during school hours it will normally be necessary
to seek the consent of the school. Where consent has been refused,
reference should be made to Head of Department before taking any
decision to go ahead. This can normally be justified only if the
item is of sufficient public importance and the child's appearance
is absolutely necessary.
In the case of drama involving child performances, if the child
is required during school hours the consent of the child's school
is required. In law, Local Education Authorities license all child
performances during school hours. Some education authorities make
a very broad definition of what constitutes a performance.
Journalists and other programme makers should consider carefully
the impact of the programme on a child involved in it - both in
the way it is made, and any possible impact it may have when broadcast.
This applies irrespective of whether we have secured parental consent.
Children are often eager to help programme makers but may lack judgement
about their own long term interests.
Programme makers may need to consult professionals and experts
when dealing with children. BBC Children's Programmes have developed
considerable expertise and support systems to protect children before,
during and after the programme process and can offer advice in this
When dealing with dangerous or illegal activity among children,
such as drug-taking or prostitution, it is often advisable for programme
teams to be accompanied by an independent agency throughout their
contact with the children.
When factual programmes feature children involved in illegal or
anti-social activity identification may raise difficult ethical
issues. There may be a public interest in identifying the children
concerned, but the longer term interests of the child may argue
for anonymity. Programme makers should refer up where they are in
doubt about the balance of interest. Parental consent may not be
a sufficient reason to identify a child if the child's long term
future would be better served by anonymity.
When recording anti-social or criminal practices carried out by
children with the intention of highlighting the practice rather
than the individuals the general rule is that individual children
will not be identified.
5 Interviewing techniques
5.1 Interviews with children need particular care. Children can
be easily led in questioning and are often open to suggestion. Young
children in particular may have difficulty in distinguishing between
reality and fantasy. Programme makers should be careful of prompting
children and should allow them to speak for themselves. Children
should not be talked down to or patronized.
6 Laws affecting children
6.1 The identification of children involved in legal cases
There are special laws designed to protect children involved in
Youth court proceedings
Youth courts deal with people accused of committing offences while
under 18. Any matters leading to the identification in youth court
proceedings of a witness, defendant or other party in those proceedings
who is under 18 may not be revealed. The restrictions include the
naming of schools and of addresses.
No picture of a person under 18 can be broadcast. Even a picture
which doesn't show the child's face is prohibited. A child involved
in criminal proceedings as a defendant (known as the 'accused'),
a victim or a witness cannot be identified unless the court makes
an order allowing identification.
In Scotland there are no youth courts - children are dealt with
by the Children's Panel System. Any child involved in a hearing
before the Children's Panel or an associated referral hearing before
a Sheriff cannot be identified. A child is defined as someone under
the age of 16, or someone under the age of 18 who is subject to
a supervision order. The restrictions outlined in the previous paragraph
also apply to Children's Panel/Referral cases.
In contrast, in civil proceedings in Scotland, a child can be identified
unless the court makes an order preventing identification. Even
although identification may be legally permissible in such civil
cases, there may be other ethical or editorial considerations pointing
towards preserving the child's anonymity.
Other proceedings involving children
These may be heard in the Magistrates' Courts, County Courts, or
the High Court and deal with care proceedings, adoption, guardianship
and similar concerns. Restrictions may apply preventing the identification
of persons under 18, who are concerned in such proceedings.
It is open to the court to decide whether to ban the identification
of a child involved in any other proceedings.
Children as victims of sexual offences
The law also prevents the identification of child victims of sexual
Refer to Section 4.3 'Victims of Sexual Offences' of Chapter 27:
Matters of Law: General, for further details.
Courts sitting in private
It is usually a contempt to broadcast detailed accounts of proceedings
in any court sitting in private. This will include proceedings involving
wardship, adoption or guardianship of an infant. In wardship cases
it is not a contempt to report the court's order or an accurate
summary of it, unless the court expressly forbids this.
Note that since the Children Act (1989) the term 'custody' has
not been a legal concept and should not normally be used. Custody
has been replaced by contact orders, prohibited steps orders, residence
orders and specific issue orders.
6.2 The Protection of Children Act
The Protection of Children Act (1978) covers cases of children
filmed or otherwise displayed for pornographic purposes. It is an
offence under the Act to take an indecent photograph of a child
under the age of 16 or to involve a child under that age in a photograph
that is itself indecent even if the child's role is not. Explicit
sexual contact between adults and children should not be depicted
in any BBC programme. Programme makers should consult the BBC's
Legal Department if they have any queries about the law as it affects
Press Complaints Commission Code of Practice
(i) Young people should be free to complete their time at school
without unnecessary intrusion.
(ii) Journalists must not interview or photograph children under
the age of 16 on subjects involving the welfare of the child or
of any other child, in the absence of or without the consent of
a parent or other adult who is responsible for the children.
(iii) Pupils must not be approached or photographed while at school
without the permission of the school authorities.
(iv) There must be no payment to minors for material involving
the welfare of children nor payment to parents or guardians for
material about their children or wards unless it is demonstrably
in the child's interest.
(v) Where material about the private life of a child is published,
there must be justification for publication other than the fame,
notoriety or position of his or her parents or guardian.
Children in sex cases
1 The press must not, even where the law does not prohibit it,
identify children under the age of 16 who are involved in cases
concerning sexual offences, whether as victims, or as witnesses.
2 In any press report of a case involving a sexual offence against
(i) The child must not be identified.
(ii) The adult may be identified.
(iii) The word 'incest' must not be used where a child victim might
(iv) Care must be taken that nothing in the report implies the
relationship between the accused and the child.
United States of America
Society of Professional Journalists (1996)
Show compassion for those who may be affected adversely by news
coverage. Use special sensitivity when dealing with children and
inexperienced sources or subjects.
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