Definitions of the indicators

Life expectancy at birth - The number of years newborn children would live if subject to the mortality risks prevailing for the cross-section of population at the time of their birth.

Adult literacy rate - Percentage of persons aged 15 and over who can read and write.

Gross enrolment ratios: females as % of males - Girls’ gross enrolment ratio divided by that of boys, as a percentage. The gross enrolment ratio is the number of children enrolled in a schooling level (primary or secondary), regardless of age, divided by the population of the age group that officially corresponds to that level.

Contraceptive prevalence - Percentage of women in union aged 15-49 years currently using contraception.

Antenatal care - Percentage of women aged 15-49 years attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel (doctors, nurses or midwives).

Skilled attendant at delivery - Percentage of births attended by skilled health personnel (doctors, nurses or midwives).

Maternal mortality ratio - Annual number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births. This 'reported' column shows country reported figures that are not adjusted for underreporting and misclassification.


Main data sources

Life expectancy - United Nations Population Division.

Adult literacy - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), including the Education for All 2000 Assessment.

School enrolment - UIS (UNESCO Institute for Statistics) and UNESCO , including the Education for All 2000 Assessment.

Contraceptive prevalence - Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), United Nations Population Division and UNICEF.

Antenatal care - DHS, Multiple MICS, World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF.

Skilled attendant at delivery - DHS, MICS, WHO and UNICEF.

Maternal mortality - WHO and UNICEF.


The maternal mortality data in the column headed ‘reported’ are those reported by national authorities. Periodically, UNICEF, WHO and UNFPA evaluate these data and make adjustments to account for the well-documented problems of underreporting and misclassification of maternal deaths and to develop estimates for countries with no data. The column with ‘adjusted’ estimates for the year 2000 reflects the most recent of these reviews.




Data not available.


Indicates data that refer to years or periods other than those specified in the column heading, differ from the standard definition, or refer to only part of a country.


Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified in the column heading.