Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. The state is home to several historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous state in India. 48.4 per cent of the state's population live in urban areas and has the sixth highest ranking among Indian states in human development index.
Tamil Nadu has the country's third longest coastline at about 906.9 km. Tamil Nadu's coastline bore the brunt of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami when it hit India, which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the state.
Tamil Nadu is one of the pioneer states in India for initiating pro-poor policies and social protection programmes for children and women in the most marginalized communities. The state introduced progressive legislations and schemes such as social security measures, expansion of health, nutrition, WASH and education systems and public distribution system.
Over the decades, these social policies were implemented effectively with high public investment in social sector and strong administrative structures and systems that facilitated effective planning and monitoring. This significantly demonstrated impact on well-being of children in health, nutrition and education. Infant and neo-natal mortalities and prevalence of stunting among under 5 children are lowest and primary enrolment rates in schools are highest in the country.