23 August 2023

The trailblazers for Jal Jeevan Mission

Meet Munni, Deepti, Urmila, Laxmi and Manisha. The inspiring Jal Bahinis  from Masora Village in Chhattisgarh.  Jal Bahini are  water warriors who take up a leadership role for the governance of drinking water services in villages. To accelerate change at the community level, Public Health Engineering Department, Chhattisgarh, in collaboration…, Major five functions for Jal Bahinis:,  Effective participation of community in planning and implementation of Jal Jeevan Mission through community mobilization.  Interpersonal communication for water tariff collection,    Opening and maintaining capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) account including operation and maintenance (O&M) for revenue and…, Impact on community, The community’s happiness has been evident and overwhelming joy could be seen on the villagers’ face after getting potable tap connections in their houses. After hundreds of years of drudgery of fetching water, they understood that the basic luxury of getting water on demand is a gateway to all the other empowering lifelines like a healthy family…, UNICEF and Jal Jeevan Mission, Access to clean drinking water is the right of every child.  UNICEF continues to work with the Government of India to ensure clean drinking water reaches the most vulnerable communities and children in India.  Currently, Chhattisgarh has provided 2.8 million (57 percent) households with tap water connections in Chhattisgarh since the launch of the…
22 May 2023

Study on domestic water security from aspects of gender, social inequities, and water management

The Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM), the national flagship programme of the Government of India (building on the National Rural Drinking Water Programme – NRDWP) envisions safe and adequate drinking water for all, always, in rural India.  It aims to ensure that by 2022, at least 90 per cent of rural households are provided with piped water supply; at least 80 per cent of rural households have piped water supply with household connections, less than 10 per cent use public taps and less than 10 per cent use hand–pumps or other safe and adequate private water sources. Rajasthan has only 1.16 per cent of the total surface water available in India, though it covers more than 10.4 per cent of the country’s geographical area, supporting more than 5.5 per cent of the human population and 18.7 per cent of the livestock.  Barmer and Jaisalmer districts in western Rajasthan are characterized by low to very low rainfall and excessively high aridity due to high temperatures. These factors impact safe water availability for domestic and productive purposes around the year. Moreover, the region is characterized by a  number of fringe habitations (known as “dhani”), populated sparsely, and extending to a radius of 10 km or more. With limited resources at the grassroots level, techno–economic viability for setting up a water supply network in these areas is a major challenge. As noted earlier, fewer than 5 per cent of households in the two districts have tap connections.   The rationale for the study was the need to generate adequate evidence to inform the development of an equity-focused, gender-trans water security strategy, which in turn can inform the implementation plans (with a special focus on western Rajasthan) led by the Government of Rajasthan in line with the JJM. The study's findings can be used at the state level, to help guide policy directives and the programmatic framework for water governance and at the District or Gram Panchayat level for strengthening operational measures and demand-side management. The study used the qualitative research approach with the aim of gaining insights through discussions with community groups, stakeholder consultations and a review of secondary literature. 
18 May 2023

Community sanitary complexes in rural India

To improve sanitation facilities nationwide, the Government of India (GoI) launched the flagship sanitation campaign, Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), in 2014. The campaign's first phase concluded in 2019, with all Indian villages, states and union territories declaring themselves "open-defecation free" (ODF). Further, the Government of India has emphasized the construction of Community Sanitary Complexes (CSCs) along with Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) in Swachh Bharat Mission – Grameen Phase-II to attain the status of ODF plus village. CSCs are important as they address the unmet need for sanitation in households that do not have individual household latrines; due to a lack of space or are part of a floating population or areas where a large crowd gathers. CSCs are a necessary rural infrastructure provision to eliminate open defecation in villages.  The report assesses the community sanitary complexes (CSCs) constructed mainly under SBM(G) Phase II to understand their functionality and management for developing recommendations for strengthening CSC systems. The objective of the study was to evaluate the functionality of the CSCs facilities, their design, and accessibility, assess the status and types of Operational and Management (O&M) systems of CSCs, understand the CSC usage and satisfaction patterns among the beneficiaries, and lastly, develop recommendations to strengthen the overall operationalization of the CSCs. 
18 May 2023

Effect of improved WASH in schools on Girls’ Educational Outcomes

The importance of WinS for education is acknowledged by even the Right to Education Act, which mandates basic WASH facilities in schools. Successive governments have invested in WinS through various programmes since early 1990s and development organizations such as UNICEF have been supporting such government efforts for decades.    Since 2014, Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) has instilled a greater sense of urgency for sanitation and cleanliness in households, communities and institutions including schools and today promoted as the biggest behaviour change programme in the World.  Under the larger context of SBM, Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), now the Ministry of Education (MoE), launched Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya (SBSV) initiative to improve access to WASH facilities, promote their use and maintenance, and make WASH a movement in the schools.  The MHRD constituted Swachh Vidyalaya Puraskar (SVP) in 2016 to motivate schools to excel in WinS through the spirit of competition among schools.  Under SVP, schools are required to improve upon and are assessed for multiple WASH components.  The primary research question for the study is “Does improvement in water, sanitation and handwashing facilities and practices achieved under the context of SBSV reduce school absenteeism of girl students?”. The self-assessment ratings of school under SVP 2017-18 were required to be used as the proxy indicator for WinS levels.  The study was designed to find associations between high SVP ratings and absenteeism as well as other secondary outcomes of interest – enrolment and learning outcomes.