© UNICEF/NYHQ2007-0243/Pirozzi

Gisma Ibrahim’s one-year-old son suffers from severe malnutrition. Although displaced by conflict within Chad, they live in a camp for refugees from neighbouring Sudan.


Three, sometimes overlapping, patterns of violence characterize the crisis in eastern Chad, leaving civilians at risk and without protection: (a) internal armed conflict between the Chadian government and Chadian armed opposition groups; (b) cross-border attacks by Darfur-based militia against civilians; and (c) interethnic violence. Most existing schools are temporary shelters, erected with rudimentary materials that must be rebuilt at the beginning of each school year. There is high shortage of teachers among internally displaced communities. About 95 per cent of the displaced population is illiterate. There is also lack of equipment, such as school desks, school manuals and other didactic materials. While geographic coverage of the nutrition interventions in the sites for internally displaced persons (IDPs) is acceptable, UNICEF will have to secure enough therapeutic foods to supply partners for the next 12 months and to cover the needs of IDPs and of host communities around the sites. The water and sanitation coverage is still very low for the host population. With the afflux of more than 170,000 IDPs, affected host populations have seen their fragile coping mechanisms put under severe strain, leading to tensions between the two groups. While a considerable amount of child protection activities have been implemented in the camps, youth programming is still weak as well as the documentation on children’s recruitment by armed forces or armed groups. 


As recommended by the Chad Inter-Agency Standing Committee, UNICEF is the cluster lead for nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and education. UNICEF is also responsible for a subcluster on child protection within the protection cluster and is an active member of the health cluster. As cluster lead UNICEF will establish and sustain appropriate mechanisms for coordination and communication; coordinate with other clusters as well as with national and local authorities, civil society and other relevant local actors; ensure that cross-cutting priorities are always taken into consideration (age, diversity, environment, gender, HIV/AIDS and human rights); and confirm the commitment to provide assistance or services as a last resort.

Health and Nutrition: UNICEF will ensure that refugees, IDPs and host communities receive adequate preventative and curative health and nutrition care. Activities will target 93,000 children under age five and 38,000 pregnant/lactating women. UNICEF will provide vaccines for routine immunization and distribute 30,000 impregnated mosquito nets as well as antimalarial drugs.

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: UNICEF will provide 140,000 IDPs with safe water and sanitation by constructing/rehabilitating wells and sanitary facilities; train 40 community water management teams on county/city water and sanitation assessments; and promote hygiene education and hygiene awareness programmes in 120 schools and 40 local communities.

Education: UNICEF will reach a total of 150,000 displaced and war-affected children (60 per cent coverage), almost 400 preschool facilitators, 2,000 primary schoolteachers and 200 parent committees with improved school infrastructure and  sufficient teaching and learning materials; train teachers for quality teaching and enhance the capacity of parent committees to running school and supporting attendance.

Child Protection: UNICEF will consolidate the programme for the prevention of child recruitment; facilitate the release, transit, care and community reintegration of 750 children associated with armed forces or armed groups; support the prevention, identification, documentation, tracing, care and reunification with their families of an estimated 400 separated children; and continue supporting four partner NGOs dealing with sexual and gender-based violence.

HIV/AIDS: UNICEF will support sensitization activities targeting 100,000 adolescents/young women and enhance the capacity of 500 teachers and 100 health workers.

Mine Action: UNICEF will support the introduction of mine-risk education (MRE) into the primary school curriculum, targeting 15,000 students.

Summary of UNICEF Emergency Needs for 2009*
Sector US$
Health and Nutrition 7,369,522
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene 10,260,000
Education 11,258,598
Child Protection 4,320,000
HIV/AIDS 1,365,570
MIne Action 50,290
Total** 34,623,980

* Funds received against this appeal will be used to respond to both the immediate and medium-term needs of children and women as outlined above. If UNICEF should receive funds in excess of the medium-term funding requirements for this emergency, UNICEF will use those funds to support other, underfunded emergencies.
** The total includes a maximum recovery rate of 7 per cent. The actual recovery rate on contributions will be calculated in accordance with UNICEF Executive Board Decision 2006/7 dated 9 June 2006.