La situation des enfants dans le monde 1998: Regard sur la nutrition
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L'urgence silencieuse

1.Stuart Gillespie, 'Increased Maternal Mortality Risk', section 5.1, Major Issues in Developing Effective Approaches for the Prevention and Control of Iron Deficiency: An overview prepared for the Micronutrient Initiative and UNICEF, work in progress, September 1996 (first draft).

2.Alizon Draper, Child Development and Iron Deficiency: Early action is critical for healthy mental, physical and social development, The Oxford Brief, Opportunities for Micronutrient Interventions, Washington, DC, May 1997.

3.Rapport sur le développement dans le monde 1993: investir dans la santé, Banque mondiale, Washington, DC, 1993, p. 79

4.Enriching Lives: Overcoming vitamin and mineral malnutrition in developing countries, The World Bank, Washington, DC, 1994, p. 2; 'Total GDP Table 1995', World Development Indicators 1997 (CD-ROM), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank, Washington, DC, 1997.

5.Alizon Draper, op. cit., p. 1.

6.Glenn F. Maberly, Iodine Deficiency in Georgia: Progress towards elimination, Summary Report, The Program Against Micronutrient Malnutrition, Atlanta, April-May 1997, p. 1, col. 3.

7.Reynaldo Martorell, 'The Role of Nutrition in Economic Development', Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 54, No. 4, April 1996, p. S70.

8.Conformément à la terminologie internationale recommandée par l'OMS, les enfants pour lesquels les mesures sont inférieures de deux écarts-types ou plus à la médiane de référence (calculée sur une population-référence d'enfants américains) sont classés comme «gravement malnutris»; ceux dont les mesures se situent entre deux et trois écarts-types sont appelés «modérément malnutris».

9.Helen Young, and Susanne Jaspars, Nutrition Matters: People, food and famine, Intermediate Technology Publications, London, 1995, p. 17.

10.Food, Health and Care, UNICEF, New York, updated edition, November 1996, p. 13.

11.Alizon Draper, op cit., p. 1.

12.What Governments Can Do: Seventh annual report on the state of world hunger, Bread for the World Institute, Silver Spring, 1997, p. 8.

13.Ibid., p. 10.

14.W. Philip, et al., 'The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health', British Medical Journal, Vol. 314, British Medical Association, London, 24 May 1997, p. 1545.

15.Children at Risk in Central and Eastern Europe: Perils and promises, Economies in Transition Studies, Regional Monitoring Report, No. 4, International Child Development Centre, UNICEF, Florence, 1997, p. 43.

16.Robert W. Fogel, 'Economic Growth, Population Theory and Physiology: The bearing of long-term processes on the making of economic policy', The American Economic Review, Vol. 84, No. 3, The American Economic Association, Nashville, June 1994, pp. 369-395.

17.Sally Grantham-McGregor, 'A Review of Studies of the Effect of Severe Malnutrition on Mental Development', The Journal of Nutrition, Supplement,Vol. 125, No. 8S, The American Institute of Nutrition, Bethesda, 1995, p. 2235S.

18.Michael Cole, and Sheila R. Cole, 'Prenatal Development', The Development of Children, Scientific American Books, New York and Oxford, 1989, p. 72.

19.Madeleine J. Nash, 'Fertile Minds', Special Report, Time, Vol. 149, No. 5, 3 February 1997, p. 52.

20.Cassie Landers, 'A Theoretical Basis for Investing in Early Child Development: Review of current concepts', Innocenti Global Seminar on Early Child Development, International Child Development Centre, UNICEF, Florence, 1989, p. 4.

21.Lars A. Hanson, et al., 'Effects of breastfeeding on the baby and on its immune system', Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 4, United Nations University Press, Tokyo, December 1996, p. 384.

22.I. De Zoysa, M. Rea, and J. Martines, 'Why promote breastfeeding in diarrhoeal disease control programmes?', Health Policy Planning, Oxford University Press, 1991, 6:371-379, cité dans 'A warm chain for breastfeeding', The Lancet, Vol. 344, No. 8932, 5 Nov. 1994, p. 1239.

23.Daniel Glick, 'Rooting for Intelligence', Newsweek, Special Edition, Newsweek, New York, Spring/Summer 1997, p. 32.

24.Rapport mondial sur le développement humain 1997, Programme des Nations Unies pour le développement, PNUD, Economica, Paris, pp.184-185.

25.WATERfront, Issue 8, UNICEF, New York, August 1996, p. 16.

26.Rapport mondial sur le développement humain 1997, op. cit., p.31.

27.Eau salubre et assainissement pour tous: progrès accomplis pendant la première moitié des années 90: Rapport du Secrétaire général, Nations Unies, New York, A/50/213-E/1995/87, 8 juin 1995, tableau 1, p. 5.

28.Le progrès des nations 1997,UNICEF, Genève, 1997, p. 12.

29.'Statement on the Link Between Nutrition and Cognitive Development in Children', US Department of Agriculture study (1990) cited in Tufts University, School of Nutrition, Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy, 1995, p. 8.

30.Cassie Landers, op. cit., p. 7.

31.Les femmes dans le monde 1995: des chiffres et des idées, Statistiques et indicateurs sociaux, Série K, no 12, Nations Unies, New York, 1995, p. 113.

32.Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen, Ophelia Mascarenhas, and Margareta Wandel, Women's Role in Food Chain Activities and the Implications for Nutrition, ACC/SCN State-of-the-Art Series, Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 4, United Nations, New York, May 1989, p. 37.

Des méthodes qui fonctionnent

1.Stuart Gillespie, John Mason, and Reynaldo Martorell, How Nutrition Improves, ACC/SCN State-of-the-Art Series, Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 15, United Nations, New York, July 1996.

2.Code international de commercialisation des substituts du lait maternel, Organisation mondiale de la Santé, Genève, 1981, pp. 6-7.

3.Le progrès des nations 1997, UNICEF, Genève, 1997, p. 21.

4.Micronutrient Initiative, Ottawa, fac-similé daté du 14 octobre 1997.

5.Alfred Sommer, et al., 'Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality: A randomised controlled community trial', The Lancet, 1986, Vol. 1, pp. 1169-1173.

6.G. H Beaton, et al., Effectiveness of Vitamin A Supplementation in the Control of Young Child Morbidity and Mortality in Developing Countries, ACC/SCN State-of-the-Art Series, Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 13, United Nations, December 1993, p. 61.

7.David A. Ross, et al., 'Vitamin A supplementation in northern Ghana: Effects on clinic attendances, hospital admissions and child mortality', The Lancet, Vol. 342, 3 July 1993, pp. 7-12.

8.J. Katz, et al., 'Night blindness is prevalent during pregnancy and lactation in rural Nepal', Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Journal of Nutrition, August 1995.

9.Stuart Gillespie, John Kevany, and John Mason, Controlling Iron Deficiency: A report based on an ACC/SCN workshop, United Nations, Geneva, February 1991, p. 4.

10. David Alnwick, 'More for Less in Combating Iron Deficiency? Update on the Effectiveness of Weekly Supplements', Research in Action, No. 2, UNICEF, New York, November 1995, p. 1; W. Schultink, et al., 'Effect of daily vs. twice weekly iron supplementation in Indonesian preschool children with low iron status', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 61, American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 1995, pp. 111-115.

11.M. Layrisse et al., 'Early response to the effect of iron fortification in the Venezuelan population', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 64, 1996, pp. 905-906.

12.R. J. Stoltzfus, et al., 'Epidemiology iron deficiency in Zanzibari schoolchildren: The importance of hookworms', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 65, 1997, p. 157.

13.Progrès accomplis à mi-parcours de la décennie dans l'application de la résolution 45/217 de l'Assemblée générale relative au Sommet mondial pour les enfants, Rapport du Secrétaire Général, Nations Unies, New York, A/51/256, 26 juillet 1996, p. 30, para. 130.

14.Alexia Lewnes, Thérapeutique de réhydratation orale - Elixir de vie, UNICEF, New York, 1997, p. 3.

Mobiliser la science

1.Peter Piot, «Tous unis contre le Sida», Le progrès des nations 1997,UNICEF, Genève, 1997, p. 23.

2.Alfred Sommer, and Keith P. West, Jr., Vitamin A Deficiency: Health, survival and vision, Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, 1996, pp. 41, 48,66-70.

3.S. K. Roy, et al., 'Impact of a single megadose of vitamin A at delivery on breastmilk of mothers and morbidity of their infants', European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, No. 51, Stockton Press, 1997.

4.Zinc for Child Health: Child Health Research Project Special Report, Report of a meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, 17-19 Nov. 1996, Vol. 1, No. 1, June 1997, p. 8.

5.Improving Iron and Zinc Nutrition in Infancy and Early Childhood: Proceedings of the Bali Consultation Meeting for the Planning of Multi-Country Iron and Zinc Intervention Trials, Bali, Indonesia, 4-6 February 1997, UNICEF, 1997, pp. 6-7.

6.Richard D. Semba,'Will vitamin A supplementation reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV?' Research in Action, No. 5, UNICEF, New York, July 1996.

7.Peter Adamson, «Le monde est sourd», Le progrès des nations 1996,UNICEF, Genève, 1996, p. 8.

8.Kathleen M. Rasmussen, and Michelle K. McGuire, 'Effects of breastfeeding on maternal health and well-being', Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 17, No.4, United Nations University Press, 1996, p. 366.

9.Christopher J. L. Murray, and Alan D. Lopez (eds.), The Global Burden of Disease, Harvard School of Public Health, Cambridge, 1996, pp. 360-367.

10.David J. P. Barker, Mothers, Babies and Disease in Later Life, BMJ Publishing, London, 1994.

11.Catherine M. Law, and Alistair W. Shiell, 'Is blood pressure inversely related to birth weight? The strength of evidence from a systematic review of the literature', Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 14, No. 8, 1996, pp. 935-941.

12.C. M. Law, et al., 'Thinness at birth and glucose tolerance in seven-year-old children', Diabetic Medicine, 1995, 12:24-29.

13.C. N. Hales, et al., 'Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64', British Medical Journal, Vol. 303, 26 Oct. 1991, pp. 1019-1022; K. Phipps, et al., 'Fetal growth and impaired glucose tolerance in men and women, Diabetologia, 1993, 36:225-228; David R. McCance, et al., 'Birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes: Thrifty genotype, thrifty phenotype, or surviving small baby genotype?', British Medical Journal, Vol. 308, 1994, pp. 942-945.

14.David J. P. Barker, op. cit.; C. N. Hale, and David J. P. Barker, 'Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: The thrifty phenotype hypothesis', Diabetologia, 1992, 35:595-601.

15.The Smallest Babies in the World, video, MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit, Southampton, 1996.

16.'A study of maternal nutrition and intrauterine fetal growth', King Edward Memorial Hospital Research CentreAnnual Report 1995-1996,KEMHRC, Pune, 1996, p. 36.

17.Proceedings of the Third Annual Workshop on the Fetal and Early Origins of Adult Disease, meeting in Khandala, Maharashtra, India, September 1996, p. 6.

18.Caroline Fall, Ranjan Yajnik et Shobha Rao, communication personnelle, 1997.

19.P. M. McKeigue, G. J. Miller, and> M. G. Marmot,'Coronary heart disease in South Asians overseas: A review', Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 42, No. 7, United Kingdom, 1989, pp. 597-609.

20.Sur 201 enfants de quatre ans nés à Pune avec une insuffisance pondérale, ceux dont le poids de naissance était égal ou inférieur à 2,4 kg présentaient, 30 minutes après l'ingestion d'une dose d'épreuve de glucose, des concentrations sanguines moyennes de 8,1 mM (micromole) de glucose et de 321 pM (picamole) d'insuline, contre 7,5 mM et 289 pM respectivement chez les enfants qui pesaient à la naissance 3 kg ou davantage. D'après Ranjan Yajnik, et al., 'Fetal growth and glucose and insulin metabolism in four-year-old Indian children', Diabetic Medicine, Vol. 12, 1995, pp. 330-336.

21.N. Congdon, et al., 'Pupillary and visual thresholds in young children as an index of population vitamin A status', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 61, The American Society of Clinical Nutrition, May 1995, pp. 1076-1082; A. M. Sanchez, et al., 'Pupillary threshold as an index of population vitamin A status among children in India', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 65, January 1997, pp. 61-66.

22.C. Mendoza, et al., 'Effect of Genetically Modified, Low-Phytate Maize on Iron Absorption from Tortillas', article soumis à Experimental Biology '97 (non publié).


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