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Base de données d'évaluation

Evaluation report

TNZ 1999/802: Report on The Assessment of Training Programmes Supported Through the Government of Tanzania/UNICEF Country Programme of Cooperation 1997-2001

Author: Muro, A.; Mwalemba, G.

Executive summary


The Government of Tanzania and UNICEF Country Programme (CP) of Cooperation 1997 - 2001 aims at improving the living conditions of children and women in the country. The key strategy of the Programme is community-based. To attain the overall objective of the CP, it was planned to assist communities and Local Authorities to enhance their capacity in planning and managing social development as well as in maintaining information management systems; support to Basic Education; enhance efforts for HIV/AIDS prevention and care and on Malaria prevention and control; increase efforts and awareness for social mobilization for the human rights of children and women including development of a framework for implementing CRC and CEDAW; and strengthening UNICEF's contribution to macro-level policies through a stronger role in social policy formulation and analysis, monitoring and evaluation. The Country Programme employs three basic interventions strategies: delivery of specific social services: capacity building and advocacy. The choice of intervention strategy expresses the priority given to different programme objectives and concerns and how they relate to human rights of women and children. The three strategies are alternative, but not mutually exclusive. It is expected that the application of these strategies should be for the ultimate purpose of improving the situation of children and women. Capacity building becomes a number one strategy in the Country Programme because if effectively implemented, it provides the progamme duty bearers and partners ability to move ahead on their own, and therefore sustaining social development.

Purpose / Objective

The overall objective of the training assessment was to generate ideas towards the development of a framework to guide formation of training programs, and how to monitor and evaluate the programmes in order to increase efficiency and effectiveness of CP training within the context of capacity building objectives. The specific objects of the Training Assessment were to:

- Review the formulation of training packages/manuals and the training process in order to determine issues of need and demand; involvement of target groups; and other partners, linkages and coordination
- Undertake a capacity gap analysis to find out whether training helped the actors and the beneficiaries resolve community problems
- Find out, in particular, whether training processes had taken into account the key recommendations of the Training Review of 1996
- Make recommendations that will contribute to improving future training programmes particularly with regard to relevance, purpose, monitoring and evaluation of impact


Two UNICEF National Project Officers from the Community-based Capacity Building and Communications Section and from the Monitoring and Evaluation Section conducted a rapid assessment on some of the trainings supported by UNICEF at different levels. Several methodologies were involved. Desk review on training packages/manuals and the training review report; in-house consultations and discussions with the professionals and relevant project officers who have been directly involved with the development of the training packages; and field visits in four districts - Unguja South in Zanzibar, Kibaha, Morogoro Rural and Morogoro Urban in Mainland Tanzania. The authors observed participants during training workshops. Simple tools were developed to guide interviews and discussions at national, district, ward and village levels.

Key Findings and Conclusions

Pre-training assessment is meant to appraise and set out a baseline situation and, from that, plan appropriate and feasible response. The Training Review of 1996 found that most of the packages were prepared without doing a proper needs assessment. The current training assessment revealed that not much effort has been made to implement the recommendations. In most of the cases, the packages were prepared nationally and developed in response to needs expressed at national levels by sector ministries and supporting organizations. Such short consultations cannot tap the real needs of the beneficiaries.

The assessment revealed that the problem of coordination was not only with UNICEF-supported programs, but also other UN and Development Agents were duplicating training packages similar to those developed by UNICEF. There are also several training packages that are sector specific, targeted to the same target groups in a series of uncoordinated interventions.

Some training programmes are still following a traditional 'cascade' training process -- prepare national trainers to train district trainers who, in turn, train ward trainers who then train the beneficiaries at the community level. Most of the Training of Trainers (TOTs) conducted at regional and district levels have not been disseminated to the beneficiaries at ward and village level as expected. This is due to lack of regular follow-up and supervision of the training by those responsible.

Often, due to the weak capacity of district TOTs in training and facilitation, the community beneficiaries receive diluted knowledge and skills. The few training seminars/workshops conducted at ward and community levels last a shorter time than at district and national levels. There was a feeling expressed by community members that training at lower levels were rushed, leaving the village actors with very limited real understanding of the issue and only with a set of instructions to follow. In some cases, key actors who matter in addressing problems for children and women in the community were left out of important training.

Different methodologies and techniques were applied during the training sessions. These included lecture, group work discussions, role playing, films and participation of children. The interviewees reported that they gained a lot where practical and participatory methods were applied.

Except for few training programmes conducted, it was revealed that most training did not conduct performance evaluation. The study revealed that follow up and supervision were the weakest points of the training supported by the program.


There is a need to carry out a systematic needs assessment prior all future training, using the framework provided and proposed in 1996 by the Training Review Team.

Each training should develop a performance evaluation for pre- and post-training, and the outcome should be integrated in the end-of-training evaluation. It is also important to develop a monitoring and evaluation plan.

Ensure that each training comes up with action plans to translate what was learnt into actions to improve the situation of women and children.

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