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Evaluation database

Evaluation report

2016 Burkina Faso: Evaluation du projet de renforcement du contrôle citoyen et de la redevabilité sociale dans 49 communes au Burkina Faso

Author: Cabinets Ian C. Davies Conseil Inc. & SERSAP

Executive summary

With the aim to continuously improve transparency and use of evaluation, UNICEF Evaluation Office manages the "Global Evaluation Reports Oversight System (GEROS)". Within this system, an external independent company reviews and rates all evaluation reports. The quality rating scale for evaluation reports is as follows: “Highly Satisfactory”, “Satisfactory”, “Fair” or “Unsatisfactory”. You will find the link to the quality rating below, labelled as ‘Part 3’ of the report, and the executive feedback summary labelled as ‘Part 4’.


The social accountability and citizen control was developed on the basis of main findings from the Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS) that highlighted the low efficiency of public expenditures in education sector and existence of important “leakages” in the education supply chain at local level. The project was implemented by two Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) CIFOEB and “Laboratoire Citoyenneté” first in 49 municipalities in the education sector and extended in a second phase to health, water and sanitation sectors in 21 additional municipalities. The project aims at contributing to the improvement of efficiency and effectiveness of public expenditures in social sectors and strengthening the implementation of the decentralization agenda in the targeted municipalities.  The implementation of the project is based on three main strategies :  (i) capacity building of communities for their effective participation in budgeting process at local level; (ii) creation of a platform of dialogue between municipal teams and communities for social accountability purpose in the targeted sectors; and (iii) communication and advocacy activities at national level.


The purpose of the evaluation is:

  • To appreciate results achieved in terms of strengthening of social accountability and citizen control in the targeted municipalities;
  • To analyze strengths and weaknesses in the implementation of the social accountability project focusing particularly on: (i) Policies and budgeting practices in education sector at municipality level ;(ii) Participation and capacities of different actors involved in the budgeting process;(iii) Social accountability and citizen control mechanisms.
  • To analyze relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of the project in order to identify scaling up opportunities.


The evaluation used a theory driven design, combining literature and desk review, interviews to 560 stakeholders from municipal teams, community-based organizations, teachers and students in 20 municipalities through survey questionnaire, case studies at central level and in four municipalities and in depth interviews with UNICEF, implementing partners and development partners working in social accountability (World Bank, European Commission, Deutsch Cooperation and Swedish Cooperation). The evaluative approach was systemic, participatory and formative.

Findings and Conclusions:

The evaluation concludes that the public policy related to social accountability and citizen control in education sector in Burkina Faso operationalized through the project funded by UNICEF in 49 municipalities is:

  • Has generated positive results in terms of strengthening of local authorities’ capacities and citizen participation;
  • Promising in terms of expected effects on quality of public finance management and supplies, materials and infrastructures for primary education sector;
  • Crucial for better performance in education sector with regard to education monitoring indicators.    

Indeed, the social accountability and citizen control project in Burkina Faso is a powerful driver of positive change that can contribute to the realization of the development goals. It can generate in the long term positive outcomes if efforts in supporting social accountability and citizen control are consolidated. There is a potential to improve the outcome of social accountability and citizen control project by focusing more on rural communities, citizen concerns and population with low level of literacy.


  • Review the conceptual framework of the social accountability and citizen control project to move from a sectoral to a more holistic approach;
  • Review the programming of project interventions taking into consideration the functionality of existing social accountability and citizen control mechanisms at commune level and other related interventions in different sectors supported by different partners;
  • Review the performance monitoring approach of the project by focusing more on the learning function, feedback and citizen participation;
  • Strengthen integration of women and vulnerable persons concerns and their participation in social accountability and citizen control mechanisms.

Lessons Learned:

The evaluation of social accountability and citizen control in Burkina Faso, particularly the project supported by UNICEF, reveals three fundamental principles that condition the effectiveness and efficiency of the project:

  • The performance and effectiveness of social accountability and citizen control project cannot be greater than that of its weakest component which is the “citizen control”. Then the first fundamental principle highlights the need to adopt a systemic approach that focus more on the citizen control component particularly in rural settings for more efficiency.
  • To make the project more efficient, the implementing modalities should be adapted to the   specific needs of targeted communities and the specificity of the context particularly in rural settings with low literacy rates. Then the second fundamental principle highlights the fact that “No One Size Fits All”.
  • The relevance, effectiveness and sustainability of the social accountability and citizen control project are based on the level of integration of citizens’ concerns. Then the third principle is based on the “beneficiary concern” as a priority referential for conception, programming, operationalization, implementation and evaluation of the social accountability and citizen project.

Full report in PDF

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Report information


Burkina Faso



Social Policy (Cross-cutting)

UNICEF, Direction Générale de l’Economie et de la Planification (DGEP)


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