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Evaluation database

Evaluation report

2015 Tanzania: Evaluation of Integrated Post-Primary Education (IPPE) pilot project in Tanzania

Author: Dr. Mwajuma Vuzo, Dr. Vicent Anney, Dr. Blackson Kanukisya, Dr. George Kahangwa, Dr. Aneth Komba

Executive summary

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The IPPE pilot project serves the purpose of providing an alternative learning opportunity beyond the primary education level. It provides integrated knowledge and skills for adolescents, youth, and adults who have attained primary education, COBET and ICBAE graduates; secondary school graduates who wish to study vocational and generic skills ; individuals who have only completed part of their secondary schooling; youths out of school; farmers; and learners with special educational needs. Others are disadvantaged nomads, disadvantaged pastoralists, VETA graduates and dropouts. IPPE has an integrated curriculum comprising of three components; Academic, Pre-vocational and Generic Skills. In its curriculum structure  IPPE proposes to use multiple pathways to learning through distance learning and face-to-face sessions. The programme provides flexibility in terms of time, space and learning pace.
Between 2011 and 2013 the Government of Tanzania through MoEVT and the Institute of Adult Education (IAE), in collaboration with UNICEF, embarked on piloting IPPE in 12 districts of the country i.e., Mtwara rural (Mtwara), Makete and Njombe rural (Njombe),Iringa Rural and Mufindi (Iringa), Temeke (Dar es Salaam), Bagamoyo (Pwani), Hai, Siha (Kilimanjaro), Magu (Mwanza), Mbarali, and Mbeya rural (Mbeya). These districts were initially selected for IPPE piloting on the grounds that they had many children who were relatively more vulnerable to exclusion from further education. The districts had low completion rates, high dropout rates, and low transition rates from primary to secondary schools. Besides, Njombe was also selected due to its high HIV&AIDS prevalence, leading to a high rate of orphanhood, especially in Makete District. 


The evaluation assessed the programme’s main achievements (vis a viz the planned outputs), constraints and improvement measures taken to make the programme more responsive to the needs of the targeted beneficiaries. Empirically, the evaluation was guided by five evaluation criteria, namely, to establish the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability  of the programme. It also was to explore the possibilities for scale up.


Data were collected using documentary review, interviews, questionnaires, focus group discussions and observation checklist depending on the evaluation activity. The team of consultants trained 12 research assistants  to collect the data. The research assistants were trained for four days, after which the instruments were piloted for one day. After the piloting, the instruments were improved before the consultants embarked on the actual data collection.

Findings and Conclusions:

The objectives of the IPPE programme are still valid: the activities of IPPE were consistent with their intended impact.
Although sufficient funds were spent on the activity the number of learners who were enrolled was relatively small as compared to beneficiaries who participated in the sensitization.
IPPE resources such as books and learning materials, though were widely available in the centres and with appropriate contents, the books were written in English, a language which learners did not master well.
Most of the learners were young girls and boys and young adults, and tended to be from the poorest families;
The number of targeted learners was high compared to those registered;
The targeted number of centres as per the IPPE pilot plan was reached, yet the percentage of centres compared with the number of villages was inadequate.
The graduation rates varied from one centre to another and between certain skills. So far, none of the learners has graduated in the academic skill component.
IPPE attracted Private public partnership. However the partnership did not work well especially in regard to the commitment by private owners of centres that were used for IPPE.
Things that positively influenced the achievement and implementation of the IPPE programme were; learners’ own personal motivation, sufficient initial funding for training, sensitization and the preparation of learning materials by UNICEF and the initial administrative support by the district councils;
Various factors contributed to the non-achievement of the IPPE programme, including the delay in starting the teaching and learning; the language used for the teaching and learning of vocational skills; learners’ inability to pay the fees; the failure to pay the facilitators; the lack of financial support from the district councils; inadequate number of facilitators; the transfer of IPPE leaders who participated in the initial implementation at the ward, district and regional levels.


  • The objectives of the IPPE programme should be retained
  • skillfully planned teaching and learning materials should be maintained;
  • IPPE should be tuition free, and capitation grants should be extended to IPPE learners.
  • The Ministry should ensure that the learning pathways are clear to the learners; and VETA should award the certificates to technical skills IPPE graduates, for national recognition.
  • English language as the medium of instruction seems to be a challenge for most learners in the vocational stream, and is not a problem that is specific to the IPPE programme. To tackle this, the evaluators recommended that Kiswahili is used in line with Tanzanian national policy
  • There should be flexibility in terms of offering the curriculum components, such that learners should be allowed to choose between vocational or academic skills. Similarly, learners who wish to combine both components should be allowed to do so;
  • Various vocational options should be availed to learners and the necessary teaching and learning facilities provided;
  • Facilities for various disabilities should be provided e.g., Braille learning materials and modules with enlarged font size

Lessons Learned:

Although IPPE is still relevant to the needs to the community, some more work needs to be done to match the IPPE content to the needs of the most vulnerable youth and children.

Full report in PDF

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Report information


United Rep. of Tanzania


Education - Non-formal


Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MOEVT)


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