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Evaluation database

Evaluation report

2015 Tanzania: Final Report. Evaluation of Tanzania UNDAP 2011-2016

Author: Jan Sand Sorensen, Craig Naumann, Ikupa Akim, Ngila Mwase

Executive summary

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This independent evaluation was commissioned jointly by the Government of Tanzania and the UN Country Team in Tanzania (UNCT) to assess the implementation of the 2011-2015 United Nations Development Assistance Plan(UNDAP) for Tanzania, extended for one year to fit the country’s planning cycle. The evaluation complies with the standard UN requirement that all country programmes should undergo a final evaluation. However, the UNDAP differs in significant ways from the standard programming approach of other countries, based on the UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), and this evaluation could therefore not reference standard UNDAF Final Evaluation reports.

The UNDAP is unique in the UN system in that it integrates all activities of all UN agencies into one integrated results-based management framework, that is aligned with the national goals and priorities of the MKUKUTA II and MKUZA II development strategy frameworks. Another key feature and complexity of the UNDAP is that it incorporates the inter-agency management and coordination arrangements, and captures key dimensions of these in ten related DaO Outcomes which form part of the overall results matrix.


The evaluation is intended to serve three major purposes: (1) as an exercise in accountability – to the Government of Tanzania, national stakeholders, Development Partners and to the UN system as a whole – to assess the contribution of UN agencies in Tanzania to national development priorities; and (2) to determine lessons learnt in assessing and summarizing what has worked and what has worked less well, and on that basis (3) to present actionable recommendations that will inform UN system agencies and the Government of Tanzania in the preparation of the next programme of cooperation.


The evaluation has applied the standard OECD/DAC evaluation criteria of relevance, effectiveness/efficiency and sustainability to the programme assessments. Given the particular characteristics of the UNDAP it has not been possible to only apply these criteria strictly and only to higher-level findings, and doing so would not do full justice to the range and depth of UN activities implemented.

During data collection and analysis, the evaluation team has drawn on the following main sources of information:

- an extensive range of documents, mainly from official government and UN sources;
- interviews and group meetings with a broad range of UN, government, development partners, civil society stakeholders; as counterparts, implementing partners and target beneficiaries;
- Of particular significance have been missions to Zanzibar and six regions of the mainland (Dodoma/Iringa, Mwanza/Kigoma, and Kilimanjaro/Arusha) in order to complement the Dar-based/Headquarters perspective with an assessment of programme implementation on the ground.

Findings and recommendations are based on a triangulation of data and information from written and oral sources covering different stakeholder groups, to direct observation and verification.

Findings and Conclusions:

From the perspective of delivering as one, the UNDAP brings relevant UN agencies and their lead practitioners in the field working together in sectorally/thematically defined clusters or working groups in support of common outcomes and engaging in technical discussions and exchanges about relevant strategies and approaches, and monitoring and reporting together. The evaluation found, however, that there are significant differences between the different PWGs in the degree to which this translates into operational collaboration where the different key actions implemented by separate agencies are coordinated according to a common plan.
This is due to the fact that the UNDAP common work plans are not really designed from the bottom up with activities and outputs defined on the basis of a theory of change, but are to a large extent the product of retro-fitted pre-existing agency-specific plans and projects. In this sense the UNDAP work plans are the sum of individual agency work plans and projects, and about 60% of UNDAP outputs are single agency-based.

In Tanzania, DaO is no longer a revolutionary concept of doing things differently; but it has become the way the UNCT does business, reflecting but in many ways also spearheading the general mainstreaming of DaO as a general trend in UN country programmes globally. It should furthermore be noted that the UNDAP governance structure also provides for a layer of participation of government officials and interested development partners: at the summit, the Resident Coordinator and the Principal Secretary of Ministry of Finance co-chair the Joint Steering Committee; while the Programme Working Groups are matched with Programme Management Committees (PMC), co-chaired by a UN agency Head and a senior GoT official.


The UN has a well-established and position as a trusted partner of the GoT in leading and giving strategic direction to partnerships based on mutual accountability. In defining the strategic focus of the new programme, the UN should consider how best to preserve and adapt this role by analyzing the changing dynamics and modalities of the national context of development cooperation, and on that basis define and key points of entry, that will be seen to add value by RGoZ and Development Partners alike. It follows that the UN should engage further in supporting the national level architecture for aid coordination, while reducing transaction costs of GoT and Development Partners in governance for the UN programme.

The key recommendation is that the UN needs to abandon the sectoral logic of a large number of PWG/cluster silos with limited coordination and collaboration. Instead, it should focus maximum efforts and resources on a limited number –five or six– core programmes, defined by their potential to leverage internal synergies and complementarities of UN agencies to achieve maximum results and impact on major national development challenges and priorities.

From the UN’s side the national priorities should be matched by a selection of areas that offer the best opportunities for UN agencies to achieve major impact by combining the complementary strengths of different agencies.

A strong recommendation is made for development of an integrated UN programme focused on major challenges specific to Zanzibar, for example the combined challenges of increased population pressures, youth unemployment and dearth of qualified manpower in many sectors. An opportunity exists to design the relevant accompanying governance arrangements, on an innovative One UN Office basis, rather than an amalgamation of incremental reinforcement of UN agency representation, based on individual agency capacities.

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Report information


United Rep. of Tanzania


Program Excellence (Cross-Cutting)



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