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Evaluation database

Evaluation report

2015 Tanzania: VAC Evaluation: Tanzania case study



Author: Mei Zegers, Chris Yeomans, Luhovilo Sanga, and Timotheo Masanyiwa

Executive summary

Protecting Children from Violence: A Comprehensive Evaluation of UNICEF’s Strategies and Programme Performance, Tanzania Country Case Study

With the aim to continuously improve transparency and use of evaluation, UNICEF Evaluation Office manages the "Global Evaluation Reports Oversight System". Within this system, an external independent company reviews and rates all evaluation reports. Please ensure that you check the quality of this evaluation report, whether it is “Outstanding, Best Practice”, “Highly Satisfactory”, “Mostly Satisfactory” or “Unsatisfactory” before using it. You will find the link to the quality rating below, labelled as ‘Part 2’ of the report.

Background:

According to the National Study on Violence against Children (NSVAC), almost three quarters of girls (72%) and boys (71%) in Tanzania have been victims of physical violence during their childhood.1 In 2009 the Government of Tanzania Mainland passed the “Law of the Child Act” (2009)2 while Zanzibar passed the “Children’s Act” in 2011.3 Both laws set out the framework for a child protection system to prevent and respond to violence and are being operationalized through regulations and guidelines. Is the system performing? How do we know? How has the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) contributed? This report sets out to provide answers to these and other important questions that are asked within the scope of a comprehensive evaluation, which examines UNICEF’s strategies and programme performance in protecting children from violence.
Tanzania was selected as one of four in-depth case study countries and 14 desk review countries included in the evaluation. The focus of the evaluation is primarily on interpersonal violence in homes and communities.
In addition to a desk review of secondary data, a two-week intensive field visit was carried out in Tanzania, The visit was comprised of interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with individuals ranging from senior and sub-national government officials, to international and national Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) representatives, to UNICEF and other UN staff, to community-based committees and children. Information thus collected was triangulated with available documentation, further interviews and review of draft reports by selected stakeholders. Unfortunately, other than the national study on VAC, which the evaluation notes as an excellent product, very little other research or evaluation information was available to provide additional independent evidence.

Purpose/Objective:

The overall objectives of the country case study of Tanzania are to:

  • Assess UNICEF’s leadership, leveraging, and convening role at Tanzania country level
  • Assess the adequacy and relevance of UNICEF’s global strategies on VAC in Tanzania
  • Assess application of strategies at national level, considering both prevention and response
  • Assess the design, implementation and results of UNICEF-supported approaches to reduce VAC in Tanzania
  • Provide forward-looking conclusions, lessons and actionable recommendations

Based on these objectives, the following specific evaluation questions linked to the global evaluation questions were developed:
EQ1: How relevant, appropriate, and coherent is the programme logic of the Tanzania VAC programme?
EQ2: How effective has the UNICEF-supported Tanzania Child Protection Programme (CPP) been in terms of implementation processes and programme results regarding VAC?
EQ3: How effectively have the VAC-related Tanzania CPPs integrated key crosscutting themes and implementation modalities, including gender equality, disabilities, other human rights and equity considerations, country context and capacity into design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation to feed back into policy and decisions?
EQ 4: How effective have UNICEF’s advocacy, leadership, leveraging, convening and partnership roles been at country level in Tanzania to protect children from violence?
EQ 5: How efficient have UNICEF’s organisational policies, strategies and country programme management practices been in obtaining results with regards to VAC at Tanzania country level?
EQ 6: To what extent are VAC programme implementation processes and results in Tanzania sustainable and can they be scaled up over the immediate-, medium- and long-term?

Methodology:

Tanzania was selected as one of four in-depth case study countries and 14 desk review countries included in the evaluation. The focus of the evaluation is primarily on interpersonal violence in homes and communities.
In addition to a desk review of secondary data, a two-week intensive field visit was carried out in Tanzania, The visit was comprised of interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with individuals ranging from senior and sub-national government officials, to international and national Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) representatives, to UNICEF and other UN staff, to community-based committees and children. Information thus collected was triangulated with available documentation, further interviews and review of draft reports by selected stakeholders. Unfortunately, other than the national study on VAC, which the evaluation notes as an excellent product, very little other research or evaluation information was available to provide additional independent evidence.

Findings and Conclusion:

The evaluation concludes that UNICEF’s effective input through advocacy, technical and financial support contributed to setting in place a CP system to address VAC at the national level and in four model districts during the evaluation period. The UNICEF office in Tanzania successfully supported the government, NGOs and districts to develop this basic structure for a systems approach to child protection. All results targets (eight outcomes above) were achieved. There are some gaps in terms of geographic coverage; scaling up institutional and capacity strengthening, even in district model areas, increasing focus on social change and addressing non-socially sanctioned forms of VAC are necessary. Gaps were also identified with respect to knowledge management, particularly the need for baseline and endline studies to determine impact and feedback information to improve the CP system’s ability to prevent and respond to VAC.

The design of the CPP in Tanzania was appropriate for Tanzania. Though the country CPP contains the core components for a child protection systems design, the coherence of the programme logic between the different components is not very evident in the design. In practice, however, coherence is established during implementation.

Recommendations:

The following recommendations are in order of suggested priority. All recommendations are for UNICEF, but need to be implemented in coordination with the government and other national and sub-national stakeholders.

  1. Continue intensive advocacy for, and support the establishment of a coordinating body on child protection. The coordinating body should be placed under the Prime Minister’s Office that covers all relevant issues on child protection across society. It should focus on ensuring coherence as well as effectively implementing and enforcing laws, rules and guidelines.
  2. Prioritise support for the countrywide dissemination of laws, rules and regulations in Swahili.
  3. Provide strong technical support to bring the systems approach to additional districts to address the needs of children affected by and/or at risk of VAC.
  4. Further develop Continuous Child Protection Management Information Systems (CPMISs) up to national level.
  5. Ensure that baselines, KAP surveys and impact surveys are implemented to track change.
  6. Further strengthen capacities, disseminate tools, develop of local bylaws and provide advocacy for increased government support for strengthening response to cases of VAC.
  7. Increase focus on prevention at community level. Prevention needs to be carried out using all possible methods ranging from public and social media to community participation supported by the strong role of local leaders with status to push for change.
  8. Promote existing positive social norms to protect children from violence.
  9. Develop child participation techniques so that children are more systematically included and supported at community level.
  10.  Scale up specific attention to address VAC in different child population groups including children with disabilities and other specific vulnerabilities as well as children from middle and wealthier income groups.

Lessons Learned:

  1. UNICEF stimulated the development of a legal, regulatory and policy framework on child protection with clear attention to VAC using an evidence-based approach. A very important element was the manner in which the completed report on VAC prevalence was launched. Subsequent to intensive advocacy of UNICEF and its non-government partners, the launch included not just the findings, but also the government’s commitment to action.
  2. UNICEF-supported development of functioning institutions at national level and in four model districts. In many instances existing committees were strengthened to add VAC instead of creating new committees. At district level, Child Protection Teams (CPTs) are functioning and meet regularly to plan response and prevention activities on VAC. Some wards within the districts still need better coverage, but wards where local committees are working on VAC are functioning.
  3. Many well-appreciated tools and guidelines were developed with the support of UNICEF. These also form a good practice that will help ensure that capable individuals in an increasing number of districts effectively carry out response and prevention work on VAC.
  4. An important lesson learned is that there are still gaps in terms of ability of child protection duty bearers to address the needs of children in different categories, including those with disabilities, across different socio-economic categories, children working and living in the street, child VAC perpetrators and those in conflict with the law.


Full report in PDF

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Report information

Year:
2015

Country:
United Rep. of Tanzania

Region:
ESARO

Theme:
Child Protection - Violence and Abuse

Type:
Evaluation

Language:
English

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