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Evaluation database

Evaluation report

2008 Tanzania: 2008 Tanzania: Evaluability Assessment of Delivering as One UN

Author: UNEG

Executive summary


At the request of the Chief Executives Board (CEB), the United Nations Evaluation Group (UNEG) initiated an assessment of the evaluability of the “Delivering as One”  initiative in the eight pilot countries of Albania, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Pakistan, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uruguay, and Vietnam. UNEG anticipated completion of the evaluability study by the end of March 2008. However, the process has been somewhat delayed due,  inter alia, to requests by Resident Coordinators and UN country teams to postpone suggested mission dates because of specific circumstances prevailing in some countries.

The present report is a result of the evaluability assessment conducted in Tanzania.


The United Nations Evaluation Group (UNEG) conducted an assessment of the evaluability of the “Delivering as One United Nations (DAO) pilot in Tanzania from 3-7 March 2008.

The purpose of the evaluability mission was to assess the design processes to date, evaluate the strategic framework as well as the framework for monitoring and evaluation of the plots, and to suggest ways to improve the quality of design of the pilots to facilitate effective evaluation of both processes and results/impact at a later stage.


The main elements of the method comprised a review of key documents and group meetings with the United Nations Country Management Team, GoT officials,  bilateral and multilateral development partners and representatives of civil society. A few limitations were encountered in terms of highly charged work agendas of UN agency staff as well as the formation of a new government and hence rotation of staff, which made it difficult to schedule appointments with relevant Government Ministries.

Findings and Conclusions:

Tanzania requested to be pilot in DAO in late 2006 and the pilot was officially launched in January 2007. The strategic intent of the pilot is, under the aegis of ‘Delivering as One’1, to provide a substantial and integrated response to national priorities as formulated in Vision 2025 (1999) and the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP)-2006 known as MKUKUTA/MKUZA2. The key pillars of the NSGRP are i) growth and reduction of income poverty; ii) quality of life and social well being, with particular focus on social services for the poorest and the most vulnerable groups; and iii) good governance and accountability.

A Joint Government/UN Steering Committee (JSC) was established in April 2007 to provide overall guidance to the pilot process in terms of policy, programme design, resource mobilization, Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E), strategic partnership and communication. The JSC consists of representatives of the Government of Tanzania, GoT participating UN agencies and a member of the Development partner Group (DPG).  It is co-chaired by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Finance and the UN Resident Coordinator (RC).

In addition to being aligned with the MKUKUTA/MKUZA, the One Programme strives to attain full compliance with the Joint Assistance Strategy of Tanzania, JAST, which stipulates the desired relationship between the government and development partners as well as with its source of inspiration, the Paris Declaration. In combination, these represent a commitment, to which Tanzania adheres, to improve aid effectiveness; specifically ownership, alignment, harmonization and mutual accountability in a more results based manner. The One Programme addresses gaps considered essential to meeting national development goals. In addition, it aims at enabling the UN system to develop and implement  joint programmes and facilitate harmonization of efforts. Under the joint GoT- UN partnership and GoT leadership, the pilot represents an attempt to move away from agency-specific projects to a programme and sector-wide approach in line with GoT policies and priorities.  The Programme also pays attention to the UN’s capacity development role in the area of disaster preparedness and the transitional issues to development that derive from continued support on humanitarian issues. Humanitarian interventions are not included in this first One UN Programme.

A key feature of the Tanzania pilot is the creation of Joint Programmes3. The One Programme covers six programmatic areas which, in addition to MKUKUTA/MKUZA, are drawn from UNDAF 2007-2010 as well as the Country Programme Action Plans (CPAPs) of four Ex-Com Agencies and Country Programme or equivalent programming  instruments of Specialized Agencies. The joint programmes are considered the means for defining joint work plans, joint budgets, common results, a clear division of labour and shared accountability.

The UN Country Management Team is composed of 18 resident agencies: FAO, IFAD, ILO, UNAIDS, UNCDF, UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UN-HABITAT, UNHCR, UNIC, UNICEF, UNICTR, UNIDO, UNV, WFP, and WHO, plus the WB and IMF. UNIFEM’s Tanzania programme is managed from Nairobi as is UNEP’s. IOM maintains an observer status.4 The Resident Coordinator position maintains its own office with six staff members.  Three Non-Resident Agencies (NRAs) are currently engaged in the DaO process in Tanzania. These are UNEP, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights,

All joint programme documents have been finalized as of March 6, 2008.Funds (over 20 mln USD) were allocated and ready to be disbursed at the time of the mission in early March. Among the gains from the planning processes are greater involvement of, and ‘cross-fertilization’ among, agencies to address and identify solutions to pressing problems.  The One Fund was put in place in October 2007. The MoU establishes the role of the Managing Agent (MA), appointed by each Joint Programme Working Group. The MA assumes full programmatic accountability for the results of the Joint  Programme. The total funding requirement of the One Programme is estimated to be US$ 74 million (37%
of UNDAF funding requirements) US$ 44 million is already available from the existing funding arrangements. Thirty (30) million United Stated dollars thus need to be covered by the One UN Fund.

The RC shares annual consolidated financial and narrative progress reports with the participating UN organizations, the Joint Steering Committee and the donors.  The RC liaises with the Ministry of Finance at the level of the Deputy Permanent Secretary. The role of the RC is well accepted by stakeholders and the strong leadership currently provided has been a significant asset to the DAO. Since UNCMT members are not obliged to comply with the DAO, the RC’s influence is, therefore, seen as critical for motivating and providing leadership to the group.

The One Office is meant to improve the efficiency of the UN system at country level by reducing transaction costs, pooling support services and simplifying/harmonizing procedures. The Operations Management Team has established a workplan which sets out objectives for unifying procedures for finance, human resources, procurement, and Information Communication Technology (ICT). The concrete outputs expected before the end of 2008 includes: One office for UN staff in Zanzibar and in the North Western region, One ICT and a common systems accounts.

The evaluability assessment mission found that major headway had been made in realizing the One UN in Tanzania. The design of the pilot appears comprehensive in its coverage of the various basic parameters and fully coherent and consistent as regards national ownership, involvement of national and international stakeholders and inclusiveness of UN stakeholders. The following observations aim at further contributing to
enhancing the quality of the design hence the evaluability of the pilot:

The strategic intent is largely shared among stakeholders although with differences in accentuation. Further strength could be achieved through formulation of a vision statement to describe the unique contribution of the UN system to national capacity development and in the context of other forms of external assistance.

The vision statement should provide the common logic to which the joint programmes would be linked. The programme logic would make the One Programme more valuable. The degree to which various components of the DaO are aligned with national priorities and systems will inform future evaluations’ inquiries into relevance, effectiveness and coherence. Part of the challenge in this respect is linked to the need for greater capacity and capacity building at government levels to participate in the planning and execution of programmes.

The vision statement and the programme logic should, to the greatest possible extent, be shared by all UN organizations working in the country. This should, however, not mean that all activities conducted by these UN organizations need necessarily be included in the One Programme (or the UNDAF).

The One Programme M&E Framework comprises 60 indicators which combine the Paris Declaration indicator targets with common services and change management  targets. While very useful for a future process evaluation, some work is required to bring the indicators in line with basic principles of Results Based Management, i. e. a formulation that would make them SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound).   This would constitute a full-fledged M&E framework that would enhance the evaluability of the DAO pilot.. The indicators should capture the full range of factors and effects that may be of importance in the experience, including positive and negative side-effects.  They should transcend mere “success criteria”, which seem to be more linked to the stated secondary purpose, which is public relations.

The Joint Programme M&E plans, that focus on development results, provide more substantive objectives and indicators allowing for an assessment of relevance  and effectiveness. However, the formulation of these indicators is not sufficiently SMART. The number of. indicators should be limited so as to avoid need for a tremendous amount of resources and effort in data collection. During its review, the RBM Task Force should aim at selecting only key and critical indicators to measure performance of the JP outcomes/results and importantly, the indicators should be pitched at the outcome level.

The GoT, with the support of UNEG, is required to evaluate the pilots and share experiences. It is urgent that independent and credible M&E counterparts be identified as soon as possible, e.g. those that have been involved in the Independent Monitoring Group. It also seems necessary to establish a separate joint M&E working group that should coordinate the evaluation of the DAO pilot in Tanzania.


Suggestions are included in the findings. There were no official recommendations.

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Report information


United Rep. of Tanzania





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