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Evaluation report

2013 Kenya Case Study: Joint Evaluation of the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting (FGM/C): Accelerating Change (2008 - 2012)

Author: Evaluation Branch, UNFPA and Evaluation Office, UNICEF

Executive summary

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In 2012/2013, in its fifth year of implementation, an evaluation of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) joint programme entitled “Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C): Accelerating Change” is being undertaken. The purpose of the evaluation is to assess the extent to which and under what circumstances (e.g. specific country contexts) the UNFPA-UNICEF joint programme has accelerated the abandonment of FGM/C in programme countries during the period 2008-2012. The evaluation includes a total of four country case studies conducted in Kenya, Burkina Faso, Senegal and Sudan.


The purpose of the country case studies is to explore and illustrate key issues, while taking into account specific national and local contexts in which the joint programme was implemented. Each country case study is intended both as a stand-alone document, and as a contribution to the final evaluation report. Kenya was selected as the pilot country case study. Criteria for its selection included the following four facts. It is one of the eight initial countries where the joint programme was first implemented in 2008. It provides an example of an Anglophone national context. It is representative of the Eastern African sub-region. Most of the geographic areas where the joint programme has been working in Kenya were accessible at the time of the evaluation.


The case study employs mixed methods of data collection, emphasizing participatory approaches. Key sources of data and methods of data collection used for the case study were: review of programme and related documents including global and country annual and mid-term reports, global and country annual work plans, communication materials, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) documents and tools; consultations with stakeholders at national and community levels (key informant interviews and community-level group discussions); and observations at the community level. In total, 242 individuals were consulted for the country case study.

Key methods of data analysis were descriptive, content and contribution analysis.
The case study involved three stages: i) preparation and planning, including logistical preparations for the country visit and document review; ii) data collection in Kenya during November 12-23, 2012, and iii) data analysis and writing of the country case study report.

Findings and Conclusions:

- The joint programme has been highly relevant.
- The design of the joint programme in Kenya was appropriate and reflected the key principles outlined for the overall (global) joint programme.
- The joint programme has made significant contributions to strengthening the national environment for the abandonment of FGM/C.
- The joint programme has contributed to enhancing local-level commitment to the abandonment of FGM/C in the targeted geographic areas.
- The evaluation found less evidence of joint programme contributions to strengthening regional dynamics to abandon FGM/C.
- Good coordination between UNFPA and UNICEF and the chosen approaches to managing the joint programme have contributed to the adequate use of available resources.
- The joint programme helped create a number of favourable conditions likely to support the sustainability of achievements.
- Horizontal issues and principles of gender equality, human rights, cultural sensitivity and focus on equity are well reflected in the design and implementation of the joint programme.
Conclusion 1: The joint programme has been highly relevant given existing commitments and priorities of the Government of Kenya and previous gaps in its efforts to abandon FGM/C. It has helped to accelerate existing change processes in social norms affecting FGM/C at national and community levels.
Conclusion 2: The long-term impact and sustainability of joint programme achievements will depend on the extent to which relevant actors can provide coordinated and systematic follow-up at both national and local levels.
Conclusion 3: Joint programme efforts to pass the FGM/C Act have produced an effective advocacy model for gender-responsive law-making that is applicable to other contexts. At the community level, long-term monitoring and additional research are required before it is possible to identify replicable models for influencing change towards the abandonment of FGM/C.


Recommendation 1: UNFPA and UNICEF should encourage the Kenyan government to embed a coordination function for FGM/C in national structures to ensure the sustainability of achievements made to date and to avoid a (re)fragmentation of efforts.
Recommendation 2: UNFPA and UNICEF should shape FGM/C programming to support operationalization and implementation of the FGM/C Act.
Recommendation 3: To sustain and expand the existing momentum for change, UNFPA and UNICEF should support their national partners in gathering additional information to be used in developing evidence-based, replicable models for successful community-level interventions.

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