We’re building a new UNICEF.org.
As we swap out old for new, pages will be in transition. Thanks for your patience – please keep coming back to see the improvements.

Evaluation database

Evaluation report

2012 Zambia: Evaluation of the UN Joint Programme on Human Trafficking

Author: Cathy Chames, Nana Davies and Tracey Phillips

Executive summary

"With the aim to continuously improve transparency and use of evaluation, UNICEF Evaluation Office manages the "Global Evaluation Reports Oversight System". Within this system, an external independent company reviews and rates all evaluation reports. Please ensure that you check the quality of this evaluation report, whether it is "Outstanding, Best Practice", "Highly Satisfactory", "Mostly Satisfactory" or "Unsatisfactory" before using it. You will find the link to the quality rating below, labeled as 'Part 2' of the report."


The Zambian Government has recognized the threat posed to Zambian society by human trafficking and has made substantial strides in addressing it. Following Zambia’s ratification of the United Nation’s Protocol in 2005, it domesticated the Protocol via the enactment of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act No 11 of 2008. A National Policy to Combat Human Trafficking was drafted in 2007. This Policy recognises that trafficking violates fundamental human rights and provides a guiding framework within which to design and implement interventions to prevent trafficking, protect and support victims, and prosecute offenders . The National Policy also emphasizes the strategic importance of adopting a multi-sectoral approach to encourage linkages and cooperation amongst key stakeholders.

A number of comprehensive National Action Plans (NAP) have since been developed ,the first of these was formulated in 2010 and the third NAP will cover an extended period, from 2012 to 2014. 

With the aim of facilitating heightened levels of coordination and collaboration amongst  various initiatives and stakeholders, and to allow for a more specific focus upon human trafficking, the United Nations Country Team in Zambia joined together to establish a joint programme against HT to provide support to the Government over a three-year period (September 2009 – August 2012) in its efforts to counteract such trafficking. Thus, the United Nations Joint Programme on Huma Tarfficking (UNJPHT), comprising of the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), was established in 2008 with funding from the European Commission and other donors . The aim of the Joint Programme was to reduce the incidence of HT whilst improving the response to cases thereof and thus mirroring the scope of Zambia’s National Policy. 


The overall purpose of the assignment was to carry out an evaluation of the European Commission funded project of the Unied Nations Joint Programme on Human Trafficking (UNJPHT). (September 2009 - 31 August 2012

Specific objectives of the evaluation were to:
1. Gain a clear understanding of how and to what extent the UNJPHT is on target to achieve its overall objective and key results

2. Determine the following with regard to the UNJPHT as an approach to combat human trafficking in Zambia:

3.Assess to what extent the UNJPHT addressed gender and human rights based approaches.

4.Determine to what extent the approach of a UN Joint Programme contributed to programme results. This includes a cost analysis to determine cost efficiency, cost implications on sustainability and scalability of the programme.

5.Provide high quality documentation for improving understanding and knowledge on programming to combat human trafficking and benefits of UN Joint Programming as an approach.

6.Contribute to knowledge management through sharing knowledge and information with partners at local, regional and global levels on programmes to combat human trafficking.

The full terms of reference for this study is contained in appendix B of the report.


The evaluation employed a participatory, mixed method approach, combining qualitative and quantitative methods.  The research process and methods employed are described below.

1. Evaluation planning workshop
A planning workshop was held with the UNJPHT team members and other key stakeholders to clarify the scope and expected outcomes of the evaluation; to identify the methods, key questions and samples; and to agree on the time frames, roles and responsibilities.  

2. Instrument design
2.1 .Qualitative instruments
Based on the evaluation planning workshop and the document review, a total of 12 qualitative instruments were designed.

2.2 Quantitative instrument
The final survey instrument consisted of 60 questions which was formatted for administration on handheld devices

3. Sampling Design
3.1  Qualitative sample
A total of 85 semi-structured interviews, 1 stakeholder workshop and 16 focus group discussions were conducted at both national and district level with a pre-defined set of state and non-state stakeholders and beneficiaries.  Eight districts across six provinces were visited.  

3.2 Quantitative sample
The survey sample comprised adults aged 18 years or older living in five communities that were targeted by the UNJPHT’s awareness campaign. A systematic sampling strategy was employed in order to approximate a random sample 

4. Data analysis
4.1 Qualitative data analysis
Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data.  The validity of the findings was assessed or triangulated by cross checking the information a) across different stakeholder groups b) with the quantitative data and c) the relevant documents.  The type of respondent was also taken into consideration (i.e. national and district; state, non-state and beneficiary groups).  NVIVO 10 software was used to analyse the qualitative data. 

4.2 Quantitative data analysis
The dataset was cleaned and analysed using SPSS. The sample was stratified and weighted. 

Findings and Conclusions:

Some of the key findings of the evaluation were as follows:

In terms of programme relevance it was found that the priorities of the UNJPHT are well-aligned to the objectives of national and international anti-HT goals and targets; the programme design is clearly based upon the key priorities of national policy; and counter-trafficking programmes were taken into consideration when establishing the UNJPHT to ensure that it would complement other, current national and international interventions. 

In terms of programme management the UNJPHT has provided technical and financial support to the Government of Zambia, to take the lead in combating human trafficking. They have assisted GRZ to implement the Act and the policy and to keep HT on the national agenda.

The effectiveness evaluation found that overall the programme has made a significant contribution to strengthening protection systems and services to meet the comprehensive needs of Victims of trafficking.

For the efficiency analysis, it was found that the biggest expenditure for the UNJPHT was transfers and grants to counterparts which constitutes 75% of the total budget.  The biggest allocation of funds went into technical support and awareness raising which in line with the two main purposes of the programme

The findings for programme impact reveal that there has been an increase in the level of protection for women, men and children from harmful effects of trafficking and this has been attributed to the UNJPHT interventions. Overall the programme intervention has created a sense of potential sustainability.  A key contributing factor towards sustainability of the UNJPHT is the mainstreaming of HT into existing activities, structures and projects. However, a number of challenges were noted in this regard, principally time and resource constraints. 


Recommendations for next phase of UNJPHT (planning):
• Form strategic partnerships with other UN agencies, like UNDP, who focus on addressing the root cause of HT, for example poverty.
• Lobby for access to free secondary education and tackling barriers to primary education by joining forces with actors who are involved in lobbying for education.  
• Develop a Logframe with clear theory of change, impact and outcome indicators covering qualitative indicators as well.
• Develop an M&E plan and an M&E system

Recommendations for next phase of UNJPHT (Protection and capacity building):
• Conduct a capacity assessment of the Counter Trafficking Talkline Service (990) and Police Emergency Hotline (991) and create awareness of their existence.  
• The implementation of the National Referral Mechanism needs priority
• Roll out the Crime Statistics Reporting Systems

Recommendations for next phase of UNJPHT (Institutional and awareness):
• Institutional strengthening at national and district level
• Scale up awareness creation activities targeting specific target groups at specific times with specific messages.  
• The informal employment sector should be targeted with awareness raising and capacity building.
• Use multi-approach campaigns including SMS campaigns, inclusion of churches, street theater, community based activities, radio, IEC distribution etc.  
• The Corporate Social Responsibility and private sector should be targeted for support and funding
• Address the stigma against returning VoTs in communities

Recommendations for next phase of UNJPHT (Institutional):
• Continue to support and lobby GRZ for building and renovation of additional shelters for VoTs
• Increase mobilisation of communities on HT activities with provide adequate funding thereof

Lessons Learned:

Some key lessons learnt from the UNJPHT:
• Whilst past research findings were taken into consideration when designing the programme, the research into children in domestic work came too late to inform planning.  The next phase should therefore ensure that the findings from this research be used to inform programme design.
• There is a need to address the root causes or underlying issues of internal trafficking in particular which includes poverty, gender, HIV / AIDS, education, lack of employment opportunities.  
• The emphasis of the first phase was on ensuring government ownership and the next phase should focus on putting institutional arrangements in place to ensure that government takes the lead in the next phase.  An important part of ensuring this commitment will be for GRZ to allocate sufficient budget and resources for the next phase.  
• It is important to ensure that engagement with civil society includes proper representation of all stakeholders including traditional leaders and the faith based sector who are major change agents to be brought on board.

Full report in PDF

PDF files require Acrobat Reader.



Report information

New enhanced search