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Evaluation report

2009 Mozambique: Preliminary Documentation and Evaluation of the Sanitation Component of the “One Million Initiative” Mozambique

Author: World Bank, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). Institution: World Bank, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP)

Executive summary


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In the context of the partnership between the Netherlands Government and UNICEF, a programme known as the “One Million Initiative” is being implemented. The new strategy known as CATS (Community Approach for Total Sanitation) combines CLTS approach (Community Led Total Sanitation) with a system of prizes. The CLTS approach enables communities to conduct self analysis of their sanitation situation and triggers collective action to eliminate open defecations, and to build latrines without subsidy. The system of prizes aims to reward open defecation free (ODF) communities, community leaders who distinguish themselves in sanitation promotion work; heads of the sub-districts (postos) in which the winning communities are situated and district governments that have the largest number of open defecation free villages and the largest number of latrines in each province.

The CLTS approach has been successfully implemented in other countries but is a new approach in Mozambique.


The objectives of the consultancy were to:

• Document the processes of sanitation promotion applied, whether CLTS, PHAST or a combination of the two;
• Document the preliminary results of the different approach used;
• Develop criteria for defining coverage, both in terms of technology and numbers of latrines, bearing in mind that in some cultures, adequate coverage may imply more than one latrine per household, whilst in others, shared latrines may be effective;
• Carry out a brief review of costs, including both the mobilisation work, evaluation and system of prizes;
• Present these preliminary findings to the Water and Sanitation Group (GAS – The Mozambican water sector discussion forum) for information and discussion;
• Provide advice to UNICEF on planning the next year’s work.


Field visits to Tete, Manica and Sofala provinces, Focus Group Discussions, Structured and Semi Structured Interviews.

Findings and Conclusions:

CATS with modifications to the award system is an effective approach for sanitation promotion within the “One Million Initiative” and can also be scaled up nationally.


1. The award system in CATS needs to be in line with the other components of the “One Million Initiative”. The community prize of a classroom should be scrapped, as it is not directly related to the programme;
2. The use of the sanitation awards scheme should be reviewed to make it more sustainable;
3. The methodology should be reviewed for incorporation of CLTS in schools;
4. The evaluation method / process should be refined the for increasing cost savings.
5. CLTS should be scaled-up to other provinces and nationally.

Lessons Learned (Optional):

The estimated cost of setting up CATS in 2008 was $167,415 while the award/prizes are estimated at $511,937, which when combined comes to a total of $679,352. The table shows that it costs less than $3 to provide access to latrine for one beneficiary in the 173 communities where CLTS was triggered and $14 per latrine. The cost for sanitation in the 34 ODF communities is about $13,629 per community, which includes the cost of a water point.

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