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Evaluation report

2009 Ghana: 2nd Evaluation of Strategy for Scaling up Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in Ghana

Author: JOYCE MPALANYI MAGALA. Partners: A multidisciplinary team was set up with members from EHSD, CWSA, WaterAid and TREND.

Executive summary


“With the aim to continuously improve transparency and use of evaluation, UNICEF Evaluation Office manages the "Global Evaluation Reports Oversight System". Within this system, an external independent company reviews and rates all evaluation reports. Please ensure that you check the quality of this evaluation report, whether it is “Outstanding”, “Good”, “Almost Satisfactory” or “Unsatisfactory” before using it. You will find the link to the quality rating below, labelled as ‘Part 2’ of the report.”


there is increasing evidence that the Government of Ghana (GoG) has stepped up its realization of the importance of sanitation and hygiene promotion towards the achievement of the national health targets and the Millennium Development goals (MDGs). This is especially in recognition of the continued low latrine coverage and user rates and their impact on the vicious cycle of poverty and on the national disease burden, particularly the high incidence of diarrhoeal disease in infants, child mortality and morbidity.
Through decentralisation and the adoption of Sector Wide approach (SwaP), the GoG realises the importance of sanitation and its impact on the national development agenda. The Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategic (GPRS11) has given sanitation high priority by recognizing and linking it to education and health sectors, but most importantly emphasizing the intrinsic link between sanitation and poverty reduction.
The outcome of the evaluation will ultimately inform the MLGRD on the implementation of the national strategy with CLTS as the preferred approach to rural sanitation.


The objectives of the assignment are to:
· evaluate the processes by which the different pilot exercises have attempted to scale up sanitation coverage by the use of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and define the best practices; evaluate the outcomes of each exercise including the extent to which CLTS has succeeded in each pilot area;
· assess the implementation arrangements including the approach for engaging with communities and households in the promotion of the approach; assess the aptitude of the various facilitators; the sustainability of the different approaches for possible replication in Ghana; the usefulness or otherwise of any credit options put in place; the impact of the sanitation marts and community-based latrine artisans;
· determine the main constraints, challenges, lessons learned and opportunities for promoting the CLTS as a viable approach for sanitation improvement;
· based on the above, identify potential improvements to the processes and participants and recommend appropriate adjustments to the implementation strategy;
· assess the suitability of the CLTS approach as the preferred approach for rural sanitation and make recommendations for adapting the approach as a national strategy.


The assignment will be organised in three stages namely; Desk Study, planning, field work in the districts and data analysis/reporting. A highly participatory approach in line with CLTS principles will be applied to ensure involvement of women, men, children, the vulnerable groups and influential and respected members of all age groups in the project areas.

Findings and Conclusions:

Arising out of the initial activities of the assignment, it is evident that CLTS approach is a participatory dynamic process, which the study will need to explore in detail and obtain information on the CLTS pilot performance since 2007.
There is growing enthusiasm amongst sanitation stakeholders towards accelerated improvements in sanitation. Pilot projects seem to have registered progress of ODF status in varied communities. The initial findings clearly indicate that CLTS has potential to be scaled up as a national strategy. However, the challenge is to identify a protocol for implementation of the CLTS approach. Further findings:
· Concerns of how CLTS approach can be harmonised into a national strategy since actors have used varying elements of the CLTS.
· Attitude towards CLTS and capacity of extension staff to sustain activities.
· It may not possible to measure impact after 2 years of CLTS; evaluation should concentrate on assessment of processes during the CLTS implementation.
· Subsidy - There should be no subsidy for sanitation, but consideration may be made for the vulnerable groups.
· Financing CLTS processes may be much more costly.


There is need to get a clear perception of the CLTS arrangement, its set up and supportive mechanisms.
Issues to be assessed will focus on all phases of the project cycle to determine issues of roles, responsibilities, triggering and community ownership of the processes. Sustainability, operation and maintenance, rational resource use/ spill over and replicability will be analysed. They will include but not limited to;
· To what extent the pilots conformed to National Policy Strategy in terms of broad approaches, priorities, service standards, involvement of other stakeholders in performing roles and responsibilities.
· How the mandate of formal government community structures were engaged in performing roles to ensure long term sustainability of the process beyond the project life span ( external support)
· Financial Sustainability (Market development and access)
· Co-ordination and collaboration mechanisms (Networking and catalysing the process)
· Capacity building and local capabilities for facilitating the processes to ensure sustainability

    o Mobilisation/ sensitisation, follow up and monitoring
    o Regulations and enforcement (Byelaws and ordinances)
    o Technologies/ facilities constructed;
    o to what extent have facilities built on local solutions and KAP
    o appropriateness ( costs, technical suitability/ adequacy/ acceptability
    o do the facilities break the Faecal Oral Routes
    o what are the chances of replication/ replacement after the project.

Further recommendations are;

    o Capacity for Follow up/monitoring ( extension workers)
    o Capacity building - Trainers capacity to scale up to wider areas or the need for national core trainers
    o Roles / responsibilities of the various stakeholders should be clarified
    o Clarify the role of the NWG in CLTS
    o Scaling up from small communities to wider coverage

Full report in PDF

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