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Evaluation report

2010 Iraq: Rehabilitation/Extension of Storm Water and Sewerage Networks In Select Locations in Kirkuk City E3-13d

Executive summary


“With the aim to continuously improve transparency and use of evaluation, UNICEF Evaluation Office manages the "Global Evaluation Reports Oversight System". Within this system, an external independent company reviews and rates all evaluation reports. Please ensure that you check the quality of this evaluation report, whether it is “Outstanding”, “Good”, “Almost Satisfactory” or “Unsatisfactory” before using it. You will find the link to the quality rating below, labelled as ‘Part 2’ of the report.”

The last couple of years have seen dismal resource allocation towards operation and maintenance severely undermining Minister of Municipalities and Public Works’s capacity to run even the basic Water and Sanitation operations and apply preventive maintenance. As a result a large number of water & sewage facilities including networks are still in a state of disrepair. The investment needs in the sector are monumental requiring injection of substantial resources into the sector over the next few years.

For Kirkuk, the access to water (69 per cent) is better than the national figure. However, the sewerage connection figures (11 per cent) are much lower than the national average. Furthermore, sewage treatment capacity available in terms of installed capacity all over Iraq is just 17 per cent of the total sewage flow generated (UNICEF commissioned Water and Sanitation sector Assessment in Iraq in 2000), for Kirkuk this figure is nil. No significant interventions have taken place in the last two decades, with the majority of water and sewer networks laid more than 30 years ago.

The developmental goal of the project was to contribute to the government’s efforts to reduce disease outbreaks through enhancing access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation and strengthen the government’s capacity through enhanced access to improved water and sewerage in Kirkuk city.

The project was funded under the UNDG-ITF at USD 2,937,664 and then revised to become USD 2,563,207. The original project duration was 14 months starting 8 March 2007 but was implemented over a period of 20 months and ended on 8 November 2008.

UNICEF’s main implementation partners were the Kirkuk Water and Sewerage Directorates, General Directorate of Human Resources and General Directorate of Sewerage/Ministry of Municipality and Public Works. Other forged partners included community leaders and labor workers who assisted in the implementation of project.

A total of 158,000 inhabitants benefited from the improvements that were implemented through this project by enhancing water and sewerage services coupled with enhanced environment in Kirkuk. In addition, government staff benefited from the capacity development programme, which was implemented as an integral part of the project.

The project was in line with the priorities identified in the National Development Strategy for Iraq, 2007- 2010 with regard to meeting the most urgent rehabilitation needs, training and capacity building. In addition, the project is expected to make a significant contribution towards attaining the Millennium Development Goals by reducing child mortality from communicable diseases and contribution to environmental sustainability.

This project aimed at enhancing water and sewerage services coupled with enhanced environment and capacity building of government staff in Kirkuk and was implemented during March 2007 to November 2008 (20 months) at a total cost of USD 2,563,207.

The project addresses the inadequacies in the water and sewerage infrastructure in select un-served and under-served locations in Kirkuk city, while simultaneously contributing to strengthened capacities of Water and Sewerage Authority staff in the proper management of Water and Sewerage facilities to realize the full beneficial impact on the population. Approximately 158,000 inhabitants in Kirkuk city had better access to safe water and improved sanitation through the rehabilitation of water network in Al Nedaa and rehabilitation/ extension of sewer networks in Hai Al-Askari, Al-Musalla, Shaterlo, and Hai Al Baath. Women and girls were particularly benefit from the improved basic services, allowing them more time to devote to other useful/developmental activities. Rehabilitation works while restoring critical services would also generate both direct and indirect employment and help ease infrastructure bottlenecks and enhance Iraq’s economic competitiveness.

The project was in-line with the priorities identified in the National Development Strategy (NDS), 2005-2007 with regard to improving quality of life of the Iraqi people with special emphasis on water and sanitation. Also the project also contributed towards attaining the MDG goals in particular to Goal # 4 = Reduce Child Mortality, Goal # 7 = Ensure Environmental Sustainability and Goal # 8 = Develop Global Partnership for Development

The security situation had little affect project implementation. The main reason for delay was contractor’s non-compliance with the timeframe. Some areas still don’t receive consistent flow of water during the dry season. Theft of manholes and irregular connections by the inhabitants are still a major issue in Kirkuk.


  1. Iraq is a resource-rich country both in terms of material and human resources. Consistent with the priorities identified in the National Development Strategy, The GoI should develop plans and allocate adequate funds under the development budgets of the next few years in order to implement projects to address the appalling environmental conditions in the sub-sectors of water, sewerage and solid waste management especially in the deprived areas of the southern districts and other neglected rural areas in the country.
  2. The future sustainability and proper functioning of the projects implemented in close collaboration with UNICEF as well as any projects that will be implemented in the future, will be much dependent on allocation of the necessary funds to cover the running cost of the systems as well as on maintaining an effective system of preventive maintenance of the facilities and equipment. The concerned local water and sewerage authorities should look into it to ensure that these pre-requisites are met at all times.
  3. Public awareness and community participation are key elements in ensuring the proper functioning of water and sewerage systems. Illegal connections to the systems and dumping of solid waste into the drains often result in clogging and flooding into the streets and alleys. In addition to their offensive hazards, these malpractices are often the main reason for cross-contamination and spread of communicable diseases. UNICEF, Water & Sewerage Authorities should work closely with the MOH and mass –media to enhance public awareness on the importance of proper use of facilities as well as to build a sense of ownership among the served population.
  4. Institutional support for the local operating units and central planning and/or supervisory units for the purpose of establishing preventive maintenance and systematic analyses of losses including the installation of the corresponding measuring equipment (if possible, at the beginning of the project in order to gather and evaluate specific operational data) and of reducing administrative losses/illegal use should also be introduced in every project where these types of problems arise and corresponding systems are not yet in place.
  5. The concerned water and sewerage authorities should maintain an effective system for regular inspection of the condition of the public water/sewerage   networks to detect any malfunctions, breakdowns or leakages and carry out the necessary repairs and maintenance works to prevent cross-contamination which is a main reason for the onset of water-borne disease outbreaks such as cholera, infectious hepatitis and diarrhea diseases.
  6. Technical assistance should be sought from WHO and UNICEF for enhancing the process of institutional capacity building of water and sewerage authorities, staff of public health laboratories and other national institutions involved in provision of basic water and sanitation services in the country.
  1. An effective system for regular chemical and bacteriological testing, of water should be carried out by trained staff at quality control laboratories in order to ensure that the quality of drinking water conforms with WHO standards.

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