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Evaluation database

Evaluation report

2010 Iraq: Extension of Storm Water and Sewer Network in Select Locations in Kerbala Governorate E3-13c

Executive summary


“With the aim to continuously improve transparency and use of evaluation, UNICEF Evaluation Office manages the "Global Evaluation Reports Oversight System". Within this system, an external independent company reviews and rates all evaluation reports. Please ensure that you check the quality of this evaluation report, whether it is “Outstanding”, “Good”, “Almost Satisfactory” or “Unsatisfactory” before using it. You will find the link to the quality rating below, labelled as ‘Part 2’ of the report.”

The last couple of years have seen dismal resource allocation towards operation and maintenance severely undermining Minister of Municipalities and Public Works’s capacity to run even the basic Water and Sanitation operations and apply preventive maintenance. As a result a large number of water & sewage facilities including networks are still in a state of disrepair. The investment needs in the sector are monumental requiring injection of substantial resources into the sector over the next few years.

For Kerbala, the access to improved sanitation (66 per cent) is slightly better than the national figure. However, the sewerage connection figures (20 per cent) are much lower than the national average. Around 55 per cent of the households that were connected in Kerbala reported unstable sewerage connection. Conditions on the ground portray a much grimmer picture. Assessments conducted by UNICEF’s field monitors revealed that sewerage networks largely constituted deteriorated and outdated pipe materials. It is no wonder therefore to come across “sewage flooded” streets and low-lying areas filled with wastewater commonly in Kerbala. The storm water networks in the selected locations are totally blocked and irreparable. Flooding of streets due to overflows from septic tanks is a common feature in some of the poorer neighborhoods. The high water table around Kerbala makes the situation still worse.

The developmental goal of the project was to strengthen the government’s capacity to protect public health by preventing disease outbreaks through enhanced access to improved sanitation in select locations in Kerbala governorate.

The project was funded under the UNDG-ITF at USD 1,934,940 and then revised to become USD 1,942,928. The original project duration was 12 months starting 8 March 2007 but was implemented over a period of 30 months and ended on 30 September 2009.

UNICEF’s main implementation partners were the Kerbala Sewerage directorate, General Directorate of Water, General Directorate of Human Resources and General Directorate of Sewerage/Ministry of Municipality and Public Works. Other forged partners included community leaders and labor workers who assisted in the implementation of project.

A total of 600,000 inhabitants in Kerbala benefited from the improvements that were implemented through this project by rehabilitating and improving access to water and sewerage services in select locations in kerbala. In addition, government staff benefited from the capacity development programme, which was implemented as an integral part of the project.

The project was in line with the priorities identified in the National Development Strategy for Iraq, 2007- 2010 with regard to meeting the most urgent rehabilitation needs, training and capacity building. In addition, the project is expected to make a significant contribution towards attaining the Millennium Development Goals by reducing child mortality from communicable diseases and contribution to environmental sustainability.

The project addresses the unsanitary conditions in select locations in Kerbala City and the inadequacies in the sewerage infrastructure in select under-served locations in Kerbala governorate, while simultaneously contributing to strengthened capacities of Sewerage Authority staff in the proper management of sewerage systems to realize the full beneficial impact on the population. Nearly 600,000 residents of Kerbala city and the numerous pilgrims who visit Kerbala on a regular basis benefited from the improved environment in the city. Another 40,000 people in Hai Al-Askari and sector 19 in Al-Hur sub-district had enhanced access to improved sanitation through the rehabilitation/ extension of sewer network in these locations. The project under evaluation while addressing the basic services also reflected positively on improving the environment and consequently improving the lives of ordinary people. Rehabilitation works not only addresses enhancing critical services but it also participated in creating many job opportunities through both direct and indirect employment.

The evaluation concluded that the project was in-line with the priorities identified in the National Development Strategy (NDS), 2005-2007 with regard to improving quality of life of the Iraqi people with special emphasis on water and sanitation. Also the project contributed towards attaining the MDG goals in particular to Goal # 4 = Reduce Child Mortality, Goal # 7 = Ensure Environmental Sustainability and Goal # 8 = Develop Global Partnership for Development.

According to the field evaluation results, the security situation affected the project implementation due to contractor’s non-compliance with the timeframe due to their low financial capacity. UNICEF immediately reviewed the cases and terminated the contracts. Furthermore, contractors faced difficulties in constant landslides, interfering pipes and digging through hard rock that delayed the implementation.

  1. Iraq is a resource-rich country both in terms of material and human resources .Consistent with the priorities identified in the National Development Strategy, The GoI should develop plans and allocate adequate funds under the development budgets of the next few years in order to implement projects to address the appalling environmental conditions in the sub-sectors of water ,sewerage and solid waste management especially in the deprived areas of the southern districts and other neglected rural areas in the country.
  1. The future sustainability and proper functioning of the projects implemented in close collaboration with UNICEF as well as any projects that will be implemented in the future, will be much dependent on allocation of the necessary funds to cover the running cost of the systems as well as on maintaining an effective system of preventive maintenance of the facilities and equipment. The concerned local water and sewerage authorities should look into it to ensure that these pre-requisites are met at all times.
  1. Public awareness and community participation are key elements in ensuring the proper functioning of water and sewerage systems. Illegal connections to the systems and dumping of solid waste into the drains often result in clogging and flooding into the streets and alleys. In addition to their offensive hazards, these malpractices are often the main reason for cross-contamination and spread of communicable diseases. UNICEF, Water & Sewerage Authorities should work closely with the MOH and mass –media to enhance public awareness on the importance of proper use of facilities as well as to build a sense of ownership among the served population.
  1. Institutional support for the local operating units and central planning and/or supervisory units for the purpose of establishing preventive maintenance and systematic analyses of losses including the installation of the corresponding measuring equipment (if possible, at the beginning of the project in order to gather and evaluate specific operational data) and of reducing administrative losses/illegal use should also be introduced in every project where these types of problems arise and corresponding systems are not yet in place.
  1. The concerned water and sewerage authorities should maintain an effective system for regular inspection of the condition of the public water/sewerage   networks to detect any malfunctions, breakdowns or leakages and carry out the necessary repairs and maintenance works to prevent cross-contamination which is a main reason for the onset of water-borne disease outbreaks such as cholera, infectious hepatitis and diarrhea diseases.
  1. Technical assistance should be sought from UNICEF for enhancing the process of institutional capacity building of water and sewerage authorities, staff of public health laboratories and other national institutions involved in provision of basic water and sanitation services in the country.
  1. An effective system for regular chemical and bacteriological testing, of water should be carried out by trained staff at quality control laboratories in order to ensure that the quality of drinking water conforms with WHO standards.

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