2010 Burundi: Assistance to populations expelled from Tanzania and support to reintegration of repatriated, expelled and displaced populations
Author: Governement of Burundi. Institution: Ministry of Solidarity, Gender and Human Rights. Partners: UNICEF
“With the aim to continuously improve transparency and use of evaluation, UNICEF Evaluation Office manages the "Global Evaluation Reports Oversight System". Within this system, an external independent company reviews and rates all evaluation reports. Please ensure that you check the quality of this evaluation report, whether it is “Outstanding”, “Good”, “Almost Satisfactory” or “Unsatisfactory” before using it. You will find the link to the quality rating below, labelled as ‘Part 2’ of the report.”
In anticipation of a possible massive expulsion of 20,000 Burundians from Kigoma district from July 2007 which was announced by the Tanzanian government and forecasting an increase in the number of expelled people from Kagera district, the Burundian government had to take the following steps with the help of humanitarian stakeholders:
• Construction of two transit sites to receive populations expelled from Kigoma (Ruyigi and Makamba provinces);
• Management of both sites by strengthening access to water and sanitation;
• Implementation of a reintegration programme including infrastructure, health and nutrition, education, protection, HIV/AIDS prevention, etc. Activities were to be concentrated in Makamba province, which is the province of origin for almost 70% of expelled individuals announced by Kigoma district;
• Strengthening of interventions in the area of human rights and protection, particularly regarding advocacy for the immediate cessation of human rights violations during expulsions and for appropriate support of expelled individuals when returning to their collines of origin.
In this context the following two projects aiming at providing “Assistance to populations expelled from Tanzania and support to reintegration of repatriated, expelled and displaced populations” were implemented:
a. The project with the title “Assistance to populations expelled from Tanzania” which had the principal objective of facilitating the reintegration of 20,000 people (corresponding to 6,000 households) in their original collines, with a particular focus on women and children. It covered the period from 1st September 2007 to 4th March 2009. The cost of this project was EUR2,506,763.
b. The project with the title “Post-conflict rural development programme” which had the principal aim to support populations expelled from Tanzania and support the reintegration of repatriated, expelled and displaced populations, was implemented jointly with UNHCR from January 2008 to December 2009. The cost of this project was EUR3,693,060.
Both projects targeted areas strongly affected by the return of large numbers of repatriated and expelled populations, in particular the provinces bordering Tanzania, i.e. i) Makamba, ii) Rutana, iii) Ruyigi, iv) Cankuzo and v) Muyinga.
The objective of the evaluation was to assess the level of realisation of the results planned for the two projects. This analysis focused on lessons learnt and highlighted the challenges encountered as well as solutions to be recommended for similar projects in the future.
Based on the Terms of Reference, the methodology used for this evaluation was divided into three phases: i) literature review, ii) field mission and iii) the analysis and synthesis of information and data gathered.
• The first phase covered the literature review which consisted in reviewing intermediary and final activity reports, project proposals, budgets and financial reports, partnership agreements and financing agreements with the European Commission. The evaluation team also participated in a coordination meeting with project partners in order to assess project progress, particularly regarding its humanitarian component.
• The second phase was composed of a field mission during which a participatory approach was adopted: the researchers conducted interviews with stakeholders involved in the implementation of project activities. Interviews were conducted in Bujumbura with the managers of the various project components at UNICEF (Emergency and Education Programmes) as well as a number of international and national organisations that were partners in project implementation. The field mission also enabled the researchers to meet and exchange with beneficiaries as well as local authorities on successes, challenges and lessons learnt.
• The third phase consisted in the analysis of information gathered during the two preceding phases by using the OECD-DAC criteria for the evaluation of humanitarian action. The criteria used for the evaluation are the following: effectiveness; efficiency; impact; appropriateness and coherence; coordination and sustainability of interventions. Other studies and evaluation reports conducted on the same area were also consulted. A debriefing was held at UNICEF in order to present preliminary findings and correct possible misconceptions. Subsequently a draft report was provided for UNICEF programme sections concerned by the project to provide comments for inclusion in the final report.
Findings and Conclusions:
The impact of the project was analysed regarding the capacity of partners as well as impact on beneficiaries.
4.1 Impact on partners
• Administrative and operational collaboration between UNICEF and various partners was strengthened; relationships between partners also improved during joint operations which required partners to work in synergy in favour of beneficiaries;
• The involvement of administrative authorities (at province, commune and grassroots level) in the treatment of migration issues was strengthened;
• A formal framework for dialogue on issues regarding expelled populations was established between Tanzanian and Burundian authorities;
• The visibility of certain partners increased to a level that they have become to be perceived as authorities in their area of intervention;
• The experience that various partners gained in their respective areas of intervention.
4.2 Impact on direct beneficiaries
The approach used to receive repatriated and expelled populations and social services provided for their use enabled the populations to regain their dignity while staying at the sites. Regarding the reintegration of these populations, the evaluation based its analysis on data from the survey conducted by Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) on the living conditions of populations expelled from Tanzania (November 2009). Thus, the following results can be observed:
• Regarding access to housing, repatriated and displaced populations benefited from better access compared to expelled populations. The latter suffered from the incorrect application of eligibility criteria by local authorities. In fact the survey conducted by NRC between September 2008 and July 2009 showed that only 5% of households in the four collines in Muyinga benefited from the “Habitat” project (EU-UNHCR-PARESI, 2008) and the final report on the Stabex project highlighted the fact that an analysis of data on beneficiaries indicated that 90% were former repatriated households and 10% were displaced populations which returned before 2006.
• Regarding the education sector the NRC survey showed that 73% of school-age children were enrolled in school thanks to the abolition of school fees and the construction of additional schools. However, the quality of education is at risk due to the lack of rigorous pedagogical support in these schools which are often situated in isolated locations. Furthermore, the lack of coherence between the recruitment policy for teachers on the one hand and the increases in the number of classrooms on the other contributed to a reduction of the impact of the school construction activities which took place within the framework of the project.
• Regarding healthcare, the survey specifies that 10% of interviewees had to cover fees for medical care out of their own pocket (due to abuse by health centre managers) although they had certificates recognising their status which were supposed to provide them with free access to health services during the 3 months following their return. Anyhow, the positive impact of this medical assistance was low as it was limited to three months and financial vulnerability means that populations have difficulty accessing medical services after this period. Furthermore, the survey underlines other factors contributing to limited access to healthcare, in particular long distances that need to be covered (43%), lack of drugs (22%), refusal to recognise exemption certificates (10%) or lack of knowledge on the benefits of the exemption certificate;
• With regards to social integration, the NRC survey mentions the good relationships built between expelled populations, the authorities and the local community. Only 5% of interviewees indicated that they were involved in land conflicts. This situation confirms the importance of social mobilisation activities.
4.3 Sustainability of the project
The LRRD approach (Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development) which framed the project contributed to the sustainability of project activities. Regarding the humanitarian component of the project, the involvement of the authorities and the development of national structures (e.g. the Ministry of National Solidarity, the Burundian Red Cross and administrative authorities) from the beginning of the project encouraged national ownership of the management of issues regarding refugees, expelled and repatriated populations. The strategy which was developed at the end of the project attributes clear responsibilities to different actors at all levels and axes of the project. Thus, the creation of Monitoring Committees and the retrocession of the sites to the Burundian Red Cross constitute concrete examples of measures likely to enhance sustainability. Furthermore, the certificates recognising the status of expelled populations enabled linkages to be developed between various actors involved in the operational aspects of reintegration in the collines of origin and the project beneficiaries. However, a formal decision needs to be made concerning the collaboration between PARESI (or the ministry in charge) and the Monitoring Committees.
Regarding reintegration activities, the active involvement of the ministries concerned by the project enabled the establishment of a link between emergency programmes and regular on-going national education programmes. As for social mobilisation, the training acquired on this topic provided community leaders with useful knowledge which they can use when acting as local authorities or influential individuals regarding peaceful coexistence and conflict resolution. With regards to advocacy, the activities that were implemented formed a basis for discussion and established contacts that are likely to continue.
The project Assistance to populations expelled from Tanzania and support to reintegration of repatriated, expelled and displaced populations generally achieved its objectives, thanks to concerted action by all stakeholders to ensure a dignified life for expelled populations
The evaluation allowed the establishment of lessons learnt, the analysis of challenges and the formulation of recommendations for each sector in order to improve any future actions.
i. Improve access and quality of primary education
ii. Increase the impact of interventions on beneficiaries
iii. Apply participatory evaluation methodologies in order to involve the direct beneficiaries in the evaluation of a project or programme
Full report in PDF
PDF files require Acrobat Reader.