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Evaluation database

Evaluation report

2003 UGD: Mid-Term Review Study on School Sanitation, Hygiene and Water in Primary Schools in Uganda

Author: Kamuli, E.; Musaazi, M. K.

Executive summary

This study was commissioned by the Gender Task Force and authorised by the MOES M&E Working Group as part of the Country Programme Mid Term Review, to assess achievements against planned activities for the school sanitation sub-programme, as well as assessing the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities to the current programme.

1. Establish the overall progress of school sanitation, hygiene and water programme since the declaration of UPE.
2. Focus on the sub-programme of the new CP from 2001-2003 achievements, noting constraints in implementation.
3. Assess the contribution of the sub-programme on girls' enrolment and indicate other contributing factors.
4. Establish any effects or perceived effects on WES-related diseases among school children.
5. Review the institutional arrangements in place in terms of policies, strategies, institutions and actors in terms of appropriateness, effectiveness and partnerships.
6. Analyse the nature of interventions that have been put in place in terms of advocacy or awareness for hygiene and sanitation improvements, technology choice in the area for appropriateness, relevance and effectiveness.
7. Review enabling or constraining factors for improved hygiene and sanitation.
8. Document the experiences and lessons learnt.
9. Draw up recommendations including scaling-up strategies for promoting school sanitation as a national programme.

1. Observation: of school facilities, pupils' behaviour, advocacy strategies in use, community facilities that provided opportunities for extension of desirable behaviours, etc. This was both anecdotal as well as systematically structured.
2. Focus group discussions: with parents, pupils, teachers, members of PDC, SIT, and DIT, as well as officials of ministries and UNICEF.
3. Interviews with key informants: these were in-depth interviews over a wide range of themes with key stakeholders at both national and district (or sub-district) levels.
4. Technology assessment using a pre-determined checklist.
5. Comprehensive literature review. In all, over 100 books, manuals, reports, journals, newspaper articles and pamphlets were reviewed.

Findings and Conclusions
- The key achievements for the country programme include the leveraging of school sanitation in the public domain, coordination of various stakeholders, development of standard models for facilities and guidelines for installation of those facilities, advocacy tools and strategies (including the formation and effecting of pupil-led interventions through clubs), education and training of teachers and other sector workers, and generally reversing the tough trends characteristic of the initial years of UPE.

- The lack of consistent community mobilisation and lack of systematic training, monitoring and evaluation have all contributed to a slackening in the progress achieved.

- The sub-programme has contributed significantly to the enrolment of girls, with a perceived levelling off in numbers between boys and girls.

- School sanitation is a major factor contributing to girls' retention.

- Since the programme was relocated to the Department of Primary Education, it has been faced with severe challenges relating to funding. However, the department remains the most appropriate coordination centre, largely due to the fact that the majority of activities relating to school sanitation are the responsibility of the PPE department.

- Advocacy for improved school sanitation has been carried out, albeit not in a very systematic manner. This was partly due to the limited resources to facilitate more systematic interventions, and also in part because stakeholders seemed to have inconsistent expectations about the sub-programme.

1. The Ministry of Education and Sports should conclude the planning process that has held up PAF funding from the Ministry of Finance so that those resources are released into the school sanitation, water and hygiene.

2. MOES should endeavour to coordinate the resources coming into the sector, be they from local government, donors or NGOs.

3. A unit similar to the one that operated under Directorate of Water Development (DWD) should be established in MOES so that it can manage the school water and sanitation interventions better.

4. Districts and sub-counties need support to enhance their capacity to operate within the SWAP framework.

5. There is a need to scale up sensitisation on the operation and maintenance of facilities, as well as to look more critically at the various roles of each stakeholder to assure sustainability.

6. The CP should continue to foster the development of appropriate local technologies alongside imported technologies.

7. A comprehensive national study should be considered to assemble reliable data on the water, hygiene and sanitation situation in the country. This would enable better responses and would indeed provide the framework for the development of a sub-sector Investment Plan.

8. There is need for enhanced partnerships among all the key stakeholders in the school sanitation sub-sector.

9. There is a need to compile an accurate database relating to school sanitation as part of the advocacy strategy, partly to inform future interventions, but mainly to provide a basis for instituting a school sanitation strategic investment plan.


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Report information





Education - Girls

Ministries of Education and Sports, Natural Resources, Health, Finance, DFID


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