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Evaluation database

Evaluation report

2000 ZAM: Baseline Survey and Needs Assessment for a Model Community School in the Kabwata Community

Author: Mumba, E. C.

Executive summary


Although there has been an expansion of education provision over the years in Zambia, not every school-age child is in school. In response to the growing number of children not in school, community schools were established to provide learning opportunities for school-age children and over-age children who were not in school. A community school is a school that is established and run by a community that has indicated the need for a school to cater for the less-privileged children -- the majority of which are girls and orphans who, for social and economic reasons, have never been to school or have dropped out from school at an early age.

This report is on a Baseline Survey and Needs Assessment conducted in Kabwata community in order to determine the basic educational needs of the community so as to be able to set up a "Model Community School" in the area. The model school will be constructed under the Basic Education Sub-Sector Investment Programme (BESSIP). The focus of BESSIP is on the right of all children to high quality basic education with the overall objectives: to increase enrolments; to reduce disparities between urban, peri-urban and rural areas; to achieve gender and socio-economic equity in access to, continuation and performance in education; and to enhance actual learning acquisition.

Purpose / Objective

The objective of the Baseline Survey and Needs Assessment was to provide quantitative and qualitative information on the economic, social and education status of the population of the Kabwata Constituency.


Primary and secondary data were collected through questionnaires using in-depth interviews with schoolheads, parents and children. Different instruments were developed for collecting information from the different groups of people. School data were collected from the District Office and ZCCS Secretariat.

Key Findings and Conclusions

School Data
There are 13 Basic schools in Kabwata Constituency, with 4 schools offering Grades 8 and 9 classes. These are Mumuni, Kamwala, Lotus and Kamulanga. Student teacher ratio is 1 to 40. Nearly all teachers have been trained at a primary teacher training college. The majority of teachers in schools are female except for Chisengalumbwe, where males are 26 against 9 females. Kamulanga Basic, which is the only school in Jack Ward, has the highest enrolment figures (2,672). The attrition rate of teachers is low although teachers still leave for greener pastures. In many schools, deaths attributed to HIV/AIDS had been reported although it is normally not talked about.

Community Schools
There were 3 Community Schools in Kabwata Constituency that were all being run by ZOCS. In all the 3 Community Schools, teachers were paid a salary. The teachers in these schools have been trained in the basic skills using SPARK Syllabus. The 3 Community Schools are housed in permanent structures.

Other Findings
Many households (46%) have a family of 6 people and above (35%). Nearly 30% of households indicated that they were looking after orphans. The majority of members of the households are self-employed, engaging in small business and trading. The major health problem in Kabwata Constituency was malaria (80%) followed by TB (63%). Although HIV/AIDS had killed many people, the majority of residents felt that many people have not changed their behaviour.

There are many Community-based Organizations operating in the Constituency such as: Kabwata Orphanage, EdSport, CINDI, YMCA, Care International, PUSH, Chilenje Orphanage, ZOCS, the Catholic Church, Women?s Finance Trust and UNESCO.

The report makes the following conclusions: poverty, access and parental attitudes are the major barriers to basic education. Some schools are far away from households, hence the need to establish a Community School. The Model Community School should be constructed in an area where schools are far from the community but with the involvement of the community, and that there is a high level of community participation as seen by the number of Community-based Organizations operating in the constituency.


A Model Community School should be constructed between Jack and Libala Wards. Parent Community Committees should be strengthened in order to build capacity in the community to participate actively in the running of a Model Community School. It may be necessary to rehabilitate an existing Community School and turn it into a Model Community School. Community Schools should utilize the services of retired people who are residents of the community, provided they undergo an orientation training on the use of SPARK Syllabus. Teachers in Community Schools should be trained in multigrade teaching. Short orientation courses should be conducted for all teachers, organized by ZCCS, the Ministry of Education, and the School of Education at the University of Zambia.

There is a need for close collaboration between ZCSS and the Ministry of Education in order to follow up on the recommendations from the Stakeholders' Symposium.

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