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Evaluation database

Evaluation report

2019 Malawi: Evaluation of the Community Led Total Sanitation and Hygiene Programme Phase I: (Qualitative and Secondary Quantitative Analysis)

Executive summary


Malawi adopted the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in 2008 to make the country Open Defecation Free (ODF) by promoting sanitation in the communities. Currently, the Malawi government has made some positive strides by triggering 67.3% of all villages in Malawi of which 33.6% have attained open defaecation free status (HMIS, 2015). To date, 38 Traditional Authorities (TAs) have been declared ODF out of which 16 were supported by UNICEF (MOH, 2017). In 2012, Malawi launched the National Handwashing Campaign to strengthen efforts on hygiene promotion. Some studies estimate that washing hands with soap can reduce diarrhoeal disease rates by up to 50 per cent and respiratory disease rates by up to 25 per cent. This makes handwashing with soap one of the most cost-effective interventions for reducing illness and preventable deaths among children in Malawi.  However, the country continues to register low coverage of handwashing practice. According to the 2014 MGD Endline Survey, only 4.2% of Malawians wash their hands with soap.


Since introduction of CLTS in Malawi in 2007, there have been limited studies undertaken to comprehensively evaluate the programme and its impact on sanitation and hygiene promotion in the country. This evaluation is therefore commissioned partly to assess how the programme has contributed to various results in line with the Theory of Change (TOC). The findings and recommendations will be disseminated at the national and district levels, which will involve all relevant WASH stakeholders including UNICEF, Ministry of Health (MOH), Districts, National ODF/HWWS Taskforce, Development Partners and NGOs. The recommendations are expected to be incorporated into national ODF and handwashing strategies. The findings will further be used in the refinement of the sanitation and handwashing strategies and will contribute towards evidence on CLTS and handwashing promotion.

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Report information

Year: 2019

Office/Country: Malawi

Region: ESAR

Type: Evaluation

Theme: Programme Excellence; WASH

Sequence #: Malawi/63/2019/8875

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