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Evaluation database

Evaluation report

2018 India: End line Evaluation of GARIMA Project in Uttar Pradesh (2013-2016)

Author: NR Management Consltants India (NRMC)

Executive summary

With the aim to continuously improve transparency and use of evaluation, UNICEF Evaluation Office manages the "Global Evaluation Reports Oversight System (GEROS)". Within this system, an external independent company reviews and rates all evaluation reports. The quality rating scale for evaluation reports is as follows: “Highly Satisfactory”, “Satisfactory”, “Fair” or “Unsatisfactory”. You will find the link to the quality rating below, labelled as‘Part 3’ of the report, and the executive feedback summary labelled as ‘Part 4’. 


GARIMA is a menstrual hygiene management model, which aimed to empower adolescent girls and their immediate influencers in three districts of Uttar Pradesh, with MHM serving as an entry point. Situated within the larger paradigm of equity, gender and human rights, the communication strategy used in the GARIMA project aimed at removing the culture of intergenerational silence around menstrual hygiene, enhancing knowledge and initiating dialogue around MHM within the family and, more broadly, at the community level, to create an enabling environment for adolescent girls to practice optimal MHM with dignity.


NRMC was engaged by UNICEF to conduct an end line evaluation assessing the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of the GARIMA project, and to identify the challenges and the lessons learned during its implementation. The results of the evaluation, undertaken between July 2017 and April 2018, covers the period from 2012 to 2016 for the district of Mirzapur and 2014 to 2016 for the districts of Jaunpur and Sonbhadra.

The evaluation, which used OECD-DAC criteria, looking at the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of the GARIMA project, was guided by the socio-ecological model. It is noteworthy that activities addressing the related issues of education, WASH, nutrition and gender were intermittent. In the absence of a sufficient focus in the baseline on education, WASH, nutrition and gender, these aspects have been assessed under effectiveness and not as impact.

The evaluation methodology entailed a two-pronged approach for data collection; namely, a desk-based review and a primary survey (both quantitative and qualitative). It also adhered strictly to United Nations Evaluation Group (UNEG) norms, standards and ethical guidelines. The research instruments used for the evaluation and the protocols for ethical standards have been reviewed and approved by a certified Institutional Review Board (IRB).

Findings and Conclusions:

Both quantitative and qualitative data collected during the evaluation showed significantly higher levels of adequate MHM among intervention participants. The bivariate analysis shows a significantly higher practice of adequate MHM among intervention AGs when compared with comparison AGs, a trend that continues in the multivariate analysis after controlling for social demographic and social economic variables.

Indirect effects were measured by first examining the impact of exposure on key mediators and subsequently the impact of these mediators on MHM behaviour.


The following could be summarized as key conclusions that have emerged during the course of the evaluation:

a) Initiation of dialogue and voicing demands beyond MHM

In contrast to the earlier scenario, the project has fostered dialogue around menstruation wherein, mothers, daughters, other female members of the family as well as FLWs in the community have become more open to engaging in conversations around menstruation. Furthermore, the project has also sensitised fathers on their daughters’ needs that encompass WASH, nutrition, education etc. Through its engagement with adolescent girls, the GARIMA project has also enabled them to make demands that go beyond MHM such as addressing issues around WASH, nutrition, education, sexual harassment and child marriage.

b) Improved knowledge and behaviour

The project has contributed towards better knowledge among adolescent girls and mothers around puberty and management of pain and discomfort during menstruation. It has also resulted in a higher proportion of respondents from the intervention villages practicing adequate MHHM behaviour vis-à-vis comparison villages.

c) Addressing social restrictions and taboos

Bending norms and restrictions around menstruation is in the nascent stage. While family members and the community in general display greater willingness in easing restrictions pertaining to diet, mobility and disposal of menstrual absorbents, religious restrictions are meticulously followed to a great extent.

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