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Evaluation database

Evaluation report

2017 Indonesia: Support to community sanitation in eastern Indonesia

Author: AAN Associates, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Executive summary

 With the aim to continuously improve transparency and use of evaluation, UNICEF Evaluation Office manages the "Global Evaluation Reports Oversight System (GEROS)". Within this system, an external independent company reviews and rates all evaluation reports. The quality rating scale for evaluation reports is as follows: “Highly Satisfactory”, “Satisfactory”, “Fair” or “Unsatisfactory”. You will find the link to the quality rating below, labelled as ‘Part 2’ of the report, and the executive feedback summary labelled as ‘Part 3’.


UNICEF Indonesia WASH program is of the key WASH sector partners, and has been assisting Government of Indonesia to help improve access to sanitation particularly in rural areas. From 2013, with assistance from Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), UNICEF developed and started implementing (initially) a three years programme (2012-15) namely “Scaling-up and Strengthening Community Approaches to Total Sanitation” (henceforth referred to as UNICEF support to STBM) with the program starting in 2013. The programme aimed to extend technical assistance to Government of Indonesia, in strengthening and accelerating the national STBM programme which this evaluation was focused on.  This is ‘Summative-Formative Evaluation’ of the UNICEF-BMGF technical assistance to national STBM Programme.


This is an end of term ‘Summative-Formative’ evaluation of the UNICEF-BMGF assistance to the national STBM programme in Indonesia. The evaluation is ‘summative’, as it intends to generate verifiable evidence of success for accountability. Simultaneously, it is ‘formative’, as it documents the lessons learnt to inform future assistance for both UNICEF and BMFG


The evaluation used both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. The methods and tools used for data collection are:
1. Document review
2. Quantitative Methods
(a) Post-KAP Household survey (N=3,240)
(b) Physical Observation by the data collector (Interviewer) as part of interview for HHS to observe any signs of the latrine use, hygienic conditions of the latrine, safe distance of the sanitation situation and facilities.
3. Qualitative Methods
(a) FGDs (N=55)
(b) KIIs (N=76)
Field Observations – Transect walk and Case studies

Findings and Conclusions:

The Evaluators conclude that UNICEF support to STBM has largely been successful in furthering the national ODF momentum, and as a means to increase the coverage and success rate for government implementation. UNICEF has successfully demonstrated the utility of supporting the government led implementation with limited funding, scope and scale, to achieve the wider results. UNICEF support has thus been a cost-efficient model of technical assistance.

The successful collaborative model demonstrated by UNICEF yielded significant improvements in increasing the impact of sanitation related policies, regulations and the timely availability of funds and advocacy tools. Consequently, the overall implementation capacity of local government has been enhanced in the ‘direct districts’. However, a lot more work still needs to be done towards perfecting planning, budgetary analysis, improving the monitoring system (software, hardware, technology integration, use of information), and, in enhancing the government’s capacity to vitalise knowledge management and its appropriate utilisation; numerous best practices, case studies, lessons and communication, exhibited through UNICEF supported implementation still needs to be consolidated and disseminated.

UNICEF’s ‘Adaptive’ approach whereby assistance tailored to varied local context worked effectively. The assistance extended with respect to capacity development, strengthening of monitoring system, and knowledge management remained largely effective. However, there are lessons learnt as to planning and implementing them better.

If UNICEF’s model of technical assistance is scaled up across Indonesia, particularly where STBM has yet to establish a strong reference and evidence, Indonesia will eventually accelerate progress towards universal ODF status, and thereby laying the foundation for achieving WASH targets of the SDGs.


• Improved coordination lies at the core of successful and accelerated implementation of STBM Programme. This requires adequate staffing, capacity and functional clarity.
• Effective communication underpins success of any behavioural change interventions. STBM needs strengthening in this respect, especially in relation to post ODF.
• Sanitation marketing is integral to diversifying technologies, improving affordability and access, and achieving inclusive access which Government needs to take a more holistic approach to.
• STBM monitoring system has seen improvements, however there are areas that need further work.
• Research is integral to knowledge management and evidence creation. The STBM Programme needs a concerted focus on improving research and knowledge management.
• STBM Secretariat may need to take a considered position on adoption of concept of ‘Social Norms Creation’ for rural sanitation programme which requires further capacity building

Full report in PDF

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Report information






National Government (BAPPENAS, Ministry of Health) and sub-national Government in NTT, Papua and South Sulawesi



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