Going for a vaccination with my cousin Emina
“Don’t worry, it doesn’t hurt, it just stings a little. It’s easier if you look the other way,” says Emina to Irma as they fix each other’s hair. This is an important day for Irma Fafulić, who has already prepared a clothing combination to wear and asks us to wait for her while she changes in another room. Both girls soon return to the living room of Irma’s humble home, dressed up and with their hair done to their liking, but now they are faced with another dilemma: they are not sure if their protective facemasks will match the rest of their outfits so they deliberate on which one to wear to the vaccination point. The atmosphere in the living room of the Fafulić family in the village of Varda near Kakanj is almost festive: they are visited by Edin Sejdić, mediator from the Kakanj-based Roma Support Centre “Romalen”. Six-year-old Emina and her mother Fatima Dedić from Visoko are currently visiting the Fafulić family, so the girls have been inseparable for days. “I call her sister even though we’re actually cousins, and I’m a little older than Emina,” says Irma with a smile full of crooked milk teeth and explains that she has completed her second grade online due to the COVID-19 situation. Now, she says, she is deservedly enjoying her school holidays after a very challenging period when she had to compete with other relatives for access to a single shared mobile device so that she could attend her online classes. When asked what she liked most about school this year, she retorts right off the bat: “My teacher Dženita!” The rest of the Fafulić-Dedić household listens attentively to Edin, whom they have known for a long time, and who has stopped by today to escort their Irma to the local health centre for a vaccination. Statistics show that only four percent of Roma children in BiH are vaccinated Roma girl UNICEF/ Majda Balić Raising awareness about the importance and effectiveness of immunization in Roma communities is one of the regular activities implemented by the Kakanj-based Roma Support Centre “Romalen” Edin is kind of a link between the health-care system and the residents of this small community, and as a true man of the people, he explains the advantages of immunization, dispelling misconceptions and rebutting arguments of even the most fervent opponents of vaccination in the audience. He is one of the 16 mediators trained to do outreach work and help Roma communities with vaccination procedures in four cantons with sizeable Roma population (Zenica-Doboj, Sarajevo, Central Bosnia and Tuzla). Raising awareness of the importance and effectiveness of immunization in Roma communities is one of the regular activities implemented by the Kakanj-based Roma Support Centre “Romalen” under the project Immunization for Every Child in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), in cooperation with UNICEF BiH. Edin is a link between the health-care system and the residents of this small community. Edin is a link between the health-care system and the residents of this small community. He admits that doing outreach work is not always easy, adding that people often confuse going to the doctor for an injection for receiving vaccines, and that there are still those who remain unconvinced of the benefits of immunization. But Edin has a way with people, patiently walking them through the entire process, emphasizing benefits and dispelling fears. By the end of the project, as many as almost 1500 families in the four cantons will have been informed about the benefits and effectiveness of immunization, as well as vaccination procedures and options. Mediators like Edin also provide assistance by escorting the youngest members of the community to vaccination points. “Thanks to this project, you can also retroactively receive the vaccines you missed,” says Edin, adding that many Roma are not at all aware of what needs to be done, or when. Mediators are therefore an invaluable asset to the community as they motivate, inform and mobilize people, and prepare the ground for the child’s immunization. Each mediator has a vaccination schedule for every child, and reminds parents when it is time to go to a health facility. Mediators are carefully selected from among their communities, they are persons of trust, and are usually involved in supporting the community through other projects – so they are familiar to the people they interact with and have already gained trust of the local residents. The same is true of the Fafulić family, who are now ready to have their Irma vaccinated after receiving relevant information from Edin. Mujo Fafulić Mujo Fafulić, president of the Kakanj-based Roma Support Centre “Romalen” “Roma mediators have a vital role to play in Roma communities. Statistics show that only four percent of Roma children in BiH are vaccinated. This project aims to raise this immunization rate, even using statistics on the mortality of unvaccinated children as one of the arguments,” explains Mujo Fafulić, president of the Kakanj-based Roma Support Centre “Romalen”, the organization implementing the project. “These are one-on-one conversations, with mediators visiting communities to check on the spot what the vaccination rates are and whether children are vaccinated at all, as well as which vaccines they have received, while also motivating parents to have their children immunized if they have not done so before. "By the time they reach adulthood, children should complete the vaccination cycle, and mediators are doing outreach work to explain the benefits of on-schedule immunization, as well as the adverse consequences of failing to do so." Mujo Fafulić Emina has already received the vaccines scheduled for her age, and she confidently shares her last words of advice with her cousin Irma before they leave, so that there are two parallel conversations going on in the living room – adults talk about the benefits of immunization and health care, and the little girls, holding hands, have their own conversation about what the needle looks like and where on the hand the nurse will give Irma a jab. Rubbing their hands with disinfectant, with their facemasks on, the girls extend their hands to the mediator, ready to go – Emina, being more experienced, will escort Irma to help her go through this whole experience as painlessly as possible. Irma’s parents Jasmina and Nermin are staying at home and waving to the girls from the window. Holding hands, with their fingers intertwined in a clasp that shows care and love, the children set out together on their trip to the health centre. The trip they are taking is one that is recommended to everyone as it promises better health and protection against diseases that are still lurking about and are far from being eradicated. Dr. Rownak Khan, UNICEF Representative in BIH confirms that by saying: “Vaccination is the best protection from communicable diseases. Unfortunately, Bosnia and Herzegovina’s low immunization rates, 68% full immunization and only 4% among Roma children, mean that children in this country are at high risk of getting vaccine preventable diseases resulting in outbreaks, particularly measles outbreaks. Currently, UNICEF is working with two Roma NGOs, Kali Sara and Romalen, to raise awareness on the importance of vaccination in Roma communities, by connecting with health institutions, Public Health Institutes and ministries with Roma communities through Roma health mediators to reach the most vulnerable children. This will also reduce equity gaps and will protect all children in BiH from vaccine-preventable diseases.” All children, regardless of the country or circumstances in which they live, have the right to develop and thrive. As a key component of the human right to health, immunization saves millions of lives and protects children against vaccine-preventable diseases. Immunization saves two to three million lives each year. Vaccines now protect more children than ever before, but nearly one in five infants miss out on the basic vaccines they need to stay alive and healthy. Low immunization levels among poor and marginalized children compromise gains made in all other areas of maternal and child health. This material is produced within the initiative Increase awareness on the importance of vaccination with special focus on Roma communities - Immunization for every child! UNICEF Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s programme on immunization, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through UNICEF Headquarters. We would also like to thank UNICEF Europe and Central Asia Regional Office for their support.
UNICEF appeals for $3.9 billion in emergency assistance for 41 million children affected by conflict or disaster
Millions of children living in countries affected by conflict and disaster lack access to vital child protection services, putting their safety, well-being and futures at risk, UNICEF warned today as it appealed for $3.9 billion to support its work for children in humanitarian crises . UNICEF’s Humanitarian Action for Children sets out the agency’s 2019 appeal and its efforts to provide 41 million children with access to safe water, nutrition, education, health and protection in 59 countries across the globe. Funding for child protection programmes accounts for $385 million of the overall appeal, including almost $121 million for protection services for children affected by the Syria crisis. “Today millions of children living through conflict or disaster are suffering horrific levels of violence, distress and trauma,” said UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore. “The impact of our child protection work cannot be overstated. When children do not have safe places to play, when they cannot be reunited with their families, when they do not receive psychosocial support, they will not heal from the unseen scars of war.” UNICEF estimates that more than 34 million children living through conflict and disaster lack access to child protection services, including 6.6 million children in Yemen, 5.5 million children in Syria and 4 million children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC ). Child protection services include all efforts to prevent and respond to abuse, neglect, exploitation, trauma and violence. UNICEF also works to ensure that the protection of children is central to all other areas of the organisation’s humanitarian programmes, including water, sanitation and hygiene, education and other areas of work by identifying, mitigating and responding to potential dangers to children’s safety and wellbeing. However, funding constraints, as well as other challenges including warring parties’ growing disregard for international humanitarian law and the denial of humanitarian access, mean that aid agencies’ capacity to protect children is severely limited. In the DRC, for example, UNICEF received just a third of the $21 million required for child protection programmes in 2018, while around one-fifth of child protection funding for Syrian children remained unmet. “Providing these children with the support they need is critical, but without significant and sustained international action, many will continue to fall through the cracks,” said Manuel Fontaine, UNICEF Director of Emergency Programmes. “The international community should commit to supporting the protection of children in emergencies.” 2019 marks the 30th anniversary of the landmark Convention on the Rights of the Child and the 70th anniversary of the Geneva Conventions, yet today, more countries are embroiled in internal or international conflict than at any other time in the past three decades, threatening the safety and wellbeing of millions of children. UNICEF’s appeal comes one month after the children’s agency said that the world is failing to protect children living in conflict around the world, with catastrophic consequences. Children who are continuously exposed to violence or conflict, especially at a young age, are at risk of living in a state of toxic stress – a condition that, without the right support can lead to negative life-long consequences for their cognitive, social and emotional development. Some children impacted by war, displacement and other traumatic events – such as sexual and gender-based violence – require specialized care to help them cope and recover. The five largest individual appeals are for Syrian refugees and host communities in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq and Turkey (US$ 904 million); Yemen (US$ 542.3 million); The Democratic Republic of the Congo (US$ 326.1 million); Syria (US$ 319.8 million) and South Sudan (US$ 179.2 million). ### Notes to editors: In total, working alongside its partners, UNICEF aims to: Provide 4 million children and caregivers with access to psychosocial support; Provide almost 43 million people with access to safe water; Reach 10.1 million children with formal or non-formal basic education; Immunize 10.3 million children against measles; Treat 4.2 million children with severe acute malnutrition. In the first 10 months of 2018, as a result of UNICEF’s support: 3.1 million children and caregivers received psychosocial support; 35.3 million people had access to safe water; 5.9 million children accessed some form of education; 4.7 million children were vaccinated against measles; 2.6 million children were treated for severe acute malnutrition. Photos and multimedia materials are available for download here: https://weshare.unicef.org/Package/2AMZIFI7QW8B Humanitarian Action for Children 2019 and individual appeals can be found here: https://uni.cf/HAC_2019 On 23 September 2018 in Ukraine, Masha Khromchenko, 11, stands in the kindergarten class room that took a direct hit from a shell Novotoshkivske in the Luhansk region. The shell caused massive damage to the facility and surrounding residential area. UNICEF/UN0243152/Morris VII Photo On 23 September 2018 in Ukraine, Masha Khromchenko, 11, stands in the kindergarten class room that took a direct hit from a shell Novotoshkivske in the Luhansk region. The shell caused massive damage to the facility and surrounding residential area.
The Roma are one of Europe’s largest and most disadvantaged minority groups. Of the 10 to 12 million Roma people in Europe, around two-thirds live in central and eastern European countries. While some have escaped from poverty, millions live in slums and lack the basic services they need, from healthcare and education to electricity and clean water. Discrimination against Roma communities is commonplace, fuelling their exclusion. Far from spurring support for their social inclusion, their poverty and poor living conditions often reinforce the stereotyped views of policymakers and the public. And far from receiving the support that is their right, Roma children face discrimination that denies them the essentials for a safe, healthy and educated childhood. Discrimination against Roma children can start early, and have a life-long impact. The problems facing Roma children can start early in life. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, for example, Roma infants are four times more likely than others to be born underweight. They are also less likely to be registered at birth, and many lack the birth certificate that signals their right to a whole range of services. As they grow, Roma children are more likely to be underweight than non-Roma children and less likely to be fully immunized. Few participate in early childhood education. They are less likely than non-Roma children to start or complete primary school, and Roma girls, in particular, are far less likely to attend secondary school. Only 19 per cent of Roma children make it this far in Serbia, compared to 89 per cent of non-Roma children. There are also disparities in literacy rates across 10 countries in the region, with rates of 80 per cent for Roma boys and just under 75 per cent for Roma girls, compared to near universal literacy rates at national level. Roma children are too often segregated into ‘remedial’ classes within regular schools, and are more likely to be in ‘special’ schools – a reflection of schools that are failing to meet their needs, rather than any failure on their part. In Roma communities, child marriage may be perceived as a ‘valid’ way to protect young girls, and as a valued tradition. In reality, such marriages deepen the disparities experienced by girls, and narrow their opportunities in life. In many Balkan countries, half of all Roma women aged 20-24 were married before the age of 18, compared to around 10 per cent nationally. Child marriage and school drop-out are closely linked, particularly for girls, and such marriages also expose girls to the dangers of early pregnancy and childbirth, as well as a high risk of domestic violence.