The Roma are one of Europe’s largest and most disadvantaged minority groups. Of the 10 to 12 million Roma people in Europe, around two-thirds live in central and eastern European countries. While some have escaped from poverty, millions live in slums and lack the basic services they need, from healthcare and education to electricity and clean water. Discrimination against Roma communities is commonplace, fuelling their exclusion. Far from spurring support for their social inclusion, their poverty and poor living conditions often reinforce the stereotyped views of policymakers and the public. And far from receiving the support that is their right, Roma children face discrimination that denies them the essentials for a safe, healthy and educated childhood. Discrimination against Roma children can start early, and have a life-long impact. The problems facing Roma children can start early in life. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, for example, Roma infants are four times more likely than others to be born underweight. They are also less likely to be registered at birth, and many lack the birth certificate that signals their right to a whole range of services. As they grow, Roma children are more likely to be underweight than non-Roma children and less likely to be fully immunized. Few participate in early childhood education. They are less likely than non-Roma children to start or complete primary school, and Roma girls, in particular, are far less likely to attend secondary school. Only 19 per cent of Roma children make it this far in Serbia, compared to 89 per cent of non-Roma children. There are also disparities in literacy rates across 10 countries in the region, with rates of 80 per cent for Roma boys and just under 75 per cent for Roma girls, compared to near universal literacy rates at national level. Roma children are too often segregated into ‘remedial’ classes within regular schools, and are more likely to be in ‘special’ schools – a reflection of schools that are failing to meet their needs, rather than any failure on their part. In Roma communities, child marriage may be perceived as a ‘valid’ way to protect young girls, and as a valued tradition. In reality, such marriages deepen the disparities experienced by girls, and narrow their opportunities in life. In many Balkan countries, half of all Roma women aged 20-24 were married before the age of 18, compared to around 10 per cent nationally. Child marriage and school drop-out are closely linked, particularly for girls, and such marriages also expose girls to the dangers of early pregnancy and childbirth, as well as a high risk of domestic violence.
UNICEF responds to the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe and Central Asia
The appeal will enable UNICEF to ramp up its existing work to support national efforts to contain the spread of COVID-19, while mitigating the impacts on children and their families. This will include: Providing protective, life-saving health and hygiene supplies for facilities, health and social care workers and affected communities Supporting continued access to essential healthcare, immunization and nutrition services for women, children and vulnerable communities Intensifying and expanding communication and engagement with communities on infection prevention and safety in the home through social and multimedia, reaching children, adolescents and parents, and recognizing the role of young people as key conveyors Ensuing continuing education through distance learning for pre- and school-age children, using internet-based technology, TV broadcasts and innovative social media challenges Supporting mental health, psychosocial assistance and GBV prevention for children and caregivers through online platforms Supporting evidence-based strategies to strengthen social protection programming and reinforce safety nets for children most at risk in the face of unprecedented economic downturn in the Region Ensuring global and regional coordination, and effective data collection on the impact of the pandemic on children in Europe and Central Asia.