Improving education participation

Policy and practice pointers for enrolling all children and adolescents in school and preventing dropout


In Europe and Central Asia, despite increasing education enrolment rates, millions of children are out of preprimary, primary and secondary school.

Some children never enter school; others enter late, which constrains their learning opportunities; while others drop out before completing lower- or upper-secondary education. Children from traditionally marginalised ethnic and linguistic minorities, children with developmental delays, children with disabilities or chronic illnesses, working children, children from migrant and undocumented or stateless families, children from the poorest social and economic backgrounds − whether in urban or very remote rural areas − teenage parents and children in conflict with the law are more likely to be out-of-school or at risk of dropping out than their peers. Boys and girls are both affected although differently depending on age groups, and cultural and economic contexts.

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