Child protection

The Issue

Justice for Children

Violence Against Children

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Justice for children

Regional resources

  • Children’s equitable access to justice: Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 2015 (In English)
  • Prioritising access to justice for children in the EU Neighbourhood and Enlargement Policies and relations with Central Asia, 2014 (In English)
  • Insights: Promoting equitable access to justice for all children, 2014 (In English)
  • Torture and ill-treatment in the context of juvenile justice, 2013 (In English)  
  • Juvenile justice in the CEE/CIS region: Progress, challenges, obstacles and opportunities (In English)
  • The role of social work in juvenile justice (In English)
  • Juvenile Justice in Central Asia, 2012 (In English)
  • Lost in the Justice System – Children in Conflict with the Law in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 2008 (In English),  (In Russian)
  • The Development of Juvenile Justice Systems in Eastern Europe and Central Asia  - Lessons from Albania, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkey and Ukraine, 2009 (In English)
  • The Development of Juvenile Justice Systems in European Neighbourhood Policy Countries – Reform Achievements and Challenges in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine, 2010 (In English)
  • Thematic Evaluation of UNICEF’s Contribution to Juvenile Justice System Reform in Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and Tajikistan, 2007 (In English)
  • Regional and International Indicators on Juvenile Justice - Their applicability and relevance in selected countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 2009 (In English)
  • Good Practices and Promising Initiatives in the CEE/CIS Region, 2010 (In English)
  • UNICEF Guidance Note for CEE/CIS on Consulting with Children in Juvenile Justice Programming, 2010 (In English)
  • UNICEF Guidance Note for CEE/CIS on Juvenile Justice Programming in the CEE/CIS Region, 2010 (In English)
  • UNICEF Guidance Note for CEE/CIS on responses to children who have infringed the law but are under the minimum age for prosecution as a juvenile offender, 2010 (In English)
  • Juvenile justice in Central Asia; Reform achievements and challenge in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, UNICEF, 2012 (In English) (In Russian)
  • List of resources on child victims and witnesses of crime in the CEE/CIS region (In English)

International standards

  1. UN Standard Minimum Rules on the Treatment of Prisoners, 1977 (In English)
  2. UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice or 'The Beijing Rules', 1985 (In English)
  3. UN Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency or 'The Riyadh Guidelines', 1990 (In English)
  4. UN Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty or 'JDLs', 1990 (In English)
  5. UN Standard Minimum Rules for Non-custodial Measures or 'The Tokyo Rules', 1990 (In English)
  6. Basic principles on the use of restorative justice programmes in criminal matters. ECOSOC Resolution 2000/14, 2000 (In English)
  7. UN Declaration on Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power. UN General Assembly Resolution 40/34 (1985) (In English) (In Russian)
  8. UN Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors, 1990 (In English) (In Russian)
  9. Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers, 1990 (In English) (In Russian)
  10. UN Guidelines on Justice in matters involving child victims and witnesses of crime, 2005 (In English) (In Russian)
  11. UN Guidelines for Action on Children in the Criminal Justice System. ECOSOC Resolution 1997/30 (1997) (In English) (In Russian)
  12. General comment 10, Children’s Rights in Juvenile Justice, 2007 (In English) (In Russian)
  13. Council of Europe Guidelines on Child-Friendly Justice, 2010 (In English)

No.1-7 can be downloaded in one file entitled "Compendium of United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention and criminal justice" (In English), (In Russian)



General resources on justice for children and access to justice

  • Secretary-General guidance note on the UN approach to justice for children, 2008 (In English) (In Russian)
  • The UN common approach to justice for children (In English)
  • No rights without accountability: promoting access to justice for children, Anne Grandjean in legal empowerment: Practioners’ perspective, International Development Law Organisation, 2010 (In English)
  • United Nations Rule of Law Indicators – Implementation Guide and Project Tools, DPKO and OHCHR, 2011 (In English)
  • Programming for Justice: Access for All; A practitioner’s guide to a human rights based approach to access to justice; UNDP; 2005 (In English)
  • Making law work for everyone; Commission for the Legal Empowerment of the Poor; 2008 (In English)

General resources on juvenile justice

  • Innocenti Digest, juvenile justice (In English)
  • Manual for the measurement of juvenile justice indicators, UNICEF and UNODC, 2006 (In English) (In Russian)
  • Guidance for legislative reform on juvenile justice, UNICEF, 2011 (In English) (In Russian)
  • Juvenile justice training manual, UNICEF and PRI, 2006 (In English) (In Russian)
  • Criteria for the design and evaluation of juvenile justice reform programmes, Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice, 2010 (In English)
  • Administrative detention of children: a global report – Discussion paper, Children’s Legal Center and UNICEF, 2011 (In English)
  • Child justice bill – budget and implementation plan (South Africa); Department of Justice and Constitutional Development of South Africa; 2002 (In English)
  • The dangers of detention: the impact of incarcerating youth in detention and other secure facilities; Justice Policy Institute (In English)
  • The socioeconomic impact of pre-trial detention; Open Society Justice Initiative and UNDP; 2011 (In English)

General resources on child victims and witnesses

  • UN Guidelines on Justice in matters involving child victims and witnesses of crime, Model Law and related commentary, UNODC and UNICEF, 2009 (In English)
  • Handbook for Professionals and Policy-makers on the UN Guidelines on Justice in matters involving child victims and witnesses of crime, UNODC, UNICEF and IBCR, 2009 (In English) (In Russian)
  • Child friendly version of the UN Guidelines in both English and Russian, UNODC, UNICEF and IBCR, 2006 (In English) (In Russian)
  • Child victims in the Union – Rights and Empowerment, CURE, A report of the CURE project 2009-2010, The Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority Sweden, 2010 (In English) 
  • Good practices for the protection of witnesses in criminal proceedings involving organised crime, UNODC, 2008 (In English)
  • The rights of child victims and witnesses of crime – A compilation of selected provisions drawn from international and regional instruments, International Bureau for Child Rights, 2005 (In English)
  • List of country-specific websites in the region on child victims and witnesses  (The list is in English. The content of the websites are in local languages)

Resources on child victims and witnesses according to countries

Human Rights Defender of the Republic of Armenia: The website of Ombudsman’s Office provides information for children on how to apply online for legal aid when their rights have been violated. In Armenian and English.

Project Harmony: This website provides information about the Armenian Legal Socialization Project, focusing on developing and implementing legal education, raising awareness of the broader community about juvenile justice issues, and introducing community justice centres to Armenia. In Armenian and English.

Children’s Support Foundation Centre: This is a web page of a centre which provides legal assistance, crisis intervention and rehabilitation among other services to children and their families. In English. 

Children’s Rights Legal Clinic: The website provides guidelines and legal documents on children’s rights. The Legal Clinic provides free legal assistance by telephone, online and during individual meetings. In Azerbaijani.

Ponimanie: This NGO works to support children in difficult situations. The website contains some information on child victims of crime (related to violence), in contact with the law. In Russian and English.

Interactive Website for Children : The website contains an online library on children’s rights and legal concepts. In Russian.

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Ombudsman for Children of Republika Srpska : The website contains a page for children, as well as their parents, guardians and teachers, on children’s rights. It also provides legal documents on children’s rights and explanation on how to file a complaint to the Ombudsman. In English and Serbian.

Resource Centre on Child Abuse: The website coers the issue of child victim and witness of crime, and justice for children. In Bulgarian.

National Network for Children Association: This is a website of an alliance of NGOs who works for the rights and welfare of children in Bulgaria. It contains an online library (in Bulgarian) with documents on children’s rights. In Bulgarian and partly in English.

Social Activities and Practice Institute: The website contains publications on child-friendly justice and children victims and witnesses of crime.

Ombudsperson for Children :The website contains information on children’s rights and on how to seek legal assistance. A link to free legal help is provided. In Croatian.

Centre of Children’s Rights of the Public Defender of Georgia: The website contains a page for children and information on how to seek legal help. In Georgian and English.

Website on Children’s Rights: This website contains a page for children and parents, and providing information on children’s rights. In Russian and Kazakh. 

Human Rights Ombudsman
The website publishes annual reports which present the current status of children in the country and provides information on how to make a complaint to the Ombudsman. In Kazakh, Russian and partly in English.

Central National Child Rights Protection Committee: The website contains documents on legislation and procedures related to children’s rights, and an online form for questions. The website also contains contacts and links to websites of territorial departments for the protection of children’s rights (some also referring to legislation and offering the possibility to ask questions). In  Kazakh and Russian.

Kazakhstan International Bureau for Human Rights and Rule of Law
The website includes references to a project on access to justice (not limited to children) and increasing awareness of human rights among youth; the NGO provides legal aid to families and children in the Almaty region (contacts are provided). In Kazakh and Russian.

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
First Children’s Embassy in the World – Megjashi (FCEWM):  Founded in Skopje, the organization provides information on children’s rights for children on this website, a link to an SOS helpline, which includes provision of free legal counselling for children, and contains information on the regulations concerning children victims and witnesses of crime participating in legal procedures. In Macedonian and English.

AMOS Centre for Human Rights: The website contains a page on children’s rights (the CRC) and a link to making a complaint to the Ombudsman for Children. In Macedonian and partly in English. 

National Centre for Child Abuse Prevention (NCCAP): The website contains information on child abuse prevention, including online documents on children victims and witnesses of crime and children in contact with the law. A page for children, parents and professionals is available at, and contains information on children victims and witnesses of crime (in the ‘professionals’ category). In Romanian, Russian, and partly in English.

Child Rights Information Centre (CRIC): The website provides publications on children’s rights for children, including on the prevention of juvenile crime. In Romanian and English.

Centre of Human Rights:  The website contains information on the Ombudsman for Children’s Rights, coveringinformation on justice for children in the news section, namely related to police work and children in detention. In Romanian, Russian and English.

Ombudsman for Children’s Rights: The website contains publications, and international and national legislation on children’s rights, as well as information on how to contact the Ombudsman for complaints. In Montenegrin.

General Direction for Child Protection Ministry of Labour, Family and Child Protection of Romania: The website provides information, manuals and guideson children’s rights. In Romanian.

Russian Federation
Children's Rights Commissioner for the President of the Russian Federation: The website provides legislation and documentation on children’s rights, including on children victims and witnesses of crime, and a link to contact the Ombudsman online. In Russian.

Website for Children: This website provides information on children’s rights, including some information on the right of the child in contact with the law. In Russian.

Children’s Library of the BolshoyKamen’ city: This page provides information on children’s rights , including on available books on children’s rights, as well as online information on criminal responsibility for juveniles (extract from national legislation). In Russian.  

“Pravosoznanie”: The website of this NGO includes an online legal resource, which contains information on children’s rights, including brief information and Q&A on children in conflict and contact with the law. In Russian.

Ombudsman for Human Rights: The website has a page dedicated to children’s rights, including information on how to file a complaint to the Ombudsman for the violation of one’s rights. In Serbian.

Provincial Ombudsman of AP Vojvodina: The website provides information on children’s rights and the possibility to file a complaint online. In Serbian.

Bureau on Human Rights: The website of the NGO provides on-line consultations for everyone, including children. There is also an electronic library with publications for juveniles in contact with the law. In Russian.

GündemÇocuk (Agenda:Child!): The website of the NGO provides documentation on children’s rights, information on how to file a complaint and a link to seek free legal help online. In Turkish.

Ankara BAR Association Child Rights Commission: The website contains documentation on children’s rights and contact for legal aid consulting. In Turkish.

Bursa BAR Association Child Rights Commission: The website contains news on national child rights agenda, including topics related to child-friendly justice, and contact for legal counseling. In Turkish.

Child Rights Monitoring Committee: The website of the Turkish Parliament contains international and national legislation on children’s rights. This parliamentary body has been established to monitor and represent child rights concerns within the Parliament, notably through the reception of suggestions, comments or complaints from children on its website. In Turkish and English.

Ankara Child Rights Platform: The website provides information on member NGOs that can facilitate access to justice (including those providing legal counselling). In Turkish. 

Ministry of Family and Social Policies: The website includes a helpline for children providing counselling on services to reach for legal advice, among others.

Child Well-being Fund Ukraine: The website contains information for parents and professionals, on child victims and witnesses of crime, children in contact with the law and children’s rights in general. In Ukrainian and only partly in English.

* Under UN Security Council Resolution 1244







One Minutes Jr. are 60-second videos made by young people all over the world through the One Minutes Jr. network to express their feelings and opinions.

Click here for videos on juvenile justice in Kyrgyzstan!

Country Assessments on Justice for Children

On-line toolkit on diversion and alternatives to deprivation of liberty, UNICEF, 2011

Click here
This toolkit provides user-friendly guidance and practical tools that clarify what diversion and alternatives are; explain why they are important; provide practical guidance on how to implement diversion and alternatives using a systemic approach and gather together project examples and other resources from a range of countries for easy reference.

Online Training - Juvenile Justice

United Nations Guidelines on Justice in Matters involving child victims and witnesses of crime

This is a free of charge online self-learning tool developed by UNODC, UNICEF and IBCR with the support of the Government of Canada. The course can be taken by any professional or policy-maker interested or working in the area of support to child victims and witnesses of crime. You will need to register with a password.

Click here to do the online training.


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