Early childhood

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Teaching and Learning Processes

© UNICEF/McConnico/2011

The teaching learning process is at the heart of ECE services.

Teaching and learning processes include everything that goes on in the classroom but refers mainly to the interactions between teachers, students and their environment. Classroom interactions can be classified into three domains: emotional support, the classroom organization and the instructional support.

Currently, researchers and practitioners have wide-varying perspectives on the most appropriate pedagogical processes for child development. This framework proposes a synthesized approach, targeting both social and academic skills. Thus in the year before grade 1: “An academic orientation on basic skills such as phonological awareness and letter knowledge, can be set in a curriculum of playful, authentic activities, including shared dialogical reading and talking with the teacher, that foster deep vocabulary, discourse comprehension and world knowledge”.

The academic approach must be combined with other approaches in the CEECIS region that focus on social skills, such as values and respect for inclusion, in order to introduce young children to democratic principles and reflexes and teach them to participate and live together (adults and children) in a respectful, constructive manner (ISSA, 2009).

ECE researchers underline that essential to pedagogical approaches should include:

  • A positive socio-emotional climate: emotionally safe and stable relationships, with sensitive-responsive, teachers. 
  • Practice aimed at emerging learning (school) skills through authentic activities in which teachers participate.

For more information, see the full framework in PDF format.

Tools for monitoring the quality of teaching and learning processes



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