Access to justice for children

UNICEF is advocating, providing technical support and creating partnerships to ensure equitable access to justice for all children in Bulgaria.

A child is sitting, hidden inside a wooden hole. He seems alone.
UNICEF Bulgaria/2017/Vavova

The challenge

Access to justice for every child in Bulgaria

Children face the same obstacles in accessing justice and support as all the other citizens, but in addition, they are confronted with specific legal and social barriers due to their particular status as minors.

The justice system in Bulgaria is not yet adapted to the rights and special needs of children for support and protection. Complex and lengthy procedures, complicated and vague legal terminology, lack of coordination and cooperation between child protection bodies, the police, prosecutors’ offices and courts, limited access to specialized legal aid as well as insufficient number of professionals trained to work with children are just few of the challenges for children in Bulgaria when they participate in civil, criminal and administrative proceedings.

A Justice system which is not sensitive to the rights and needs of children can discourage them to seek protection for their fundamental human rights and generate further harm rather than guarantee justice and redress.

Children participants in legal proceedings as victims and witnesses of violence and crime, investigated or accused as offenders, or parties to administrative or civil procedures all need to have access to adapted and child-sensitive procedures implemented by specifically trained professionals.

Children in Bulgaria need to have better access to quality specialized legal aid as this is crucial to guarantee equitable access to justice

One of the most important prerequisites to ensure that children are better served and protected by the justice system is the access to free quality legal aid. Both preliminary consultation and consequent legal representation are instrumental in guaranteeing positive results for children in all proceedings concerning their life and wellbeing.

In cases of systematic child rights violations, strategic litigation is one of the ways to influence systematic changes in a timely and efficient manner.

The National Ombudsman and the Commission for Protection Against Discrimination as an Independent Human Rights Institutions play an important role in ensuring children’s access to justice

The National Ombudsman in its capacity as a National Preventive Mechanism monitors not only the correctional-educational facilities and the juvenile prison where children are deprived of liberty, but also all alternative care facilities, healthcare facilities and facilities for refugee and migrant children. The reports, observations and recommendations are instrumental in stopping child rights violations and ensuring legal remedies.

The Commission for Protection against Discrimination is another opportunity for children to seek redress for discrimination of any kind.  


UNICEF Bulgaria works in partnership with the Government, local authorities, professionals from the police, prosecutor’s offices and the courts, as well as the social services, bar associations, children and young people, civil society, media and business to ensure the right of every child to equitable access to justice.

Our efforts are aimed at:

Legislative change in accordance to international and European standards, so that the best interests of all children participants in legal proceedings are guaranteed, which includes:

- introducing adapted and child-sensitive procedures and appropriate environment for forensic interviews of children victims and witnesses of violence and crime that guarantee the aims of investigation are fulfilled and at the same time do not bring adverse consequences for the psychological recovery of children;

- introducing adapted procedures, which ensure the right of all children to be heard in all procedures dealing with their life and wellbeing – criminal, civil and administrative;

- introducing changes ensuring that children have access to free quality legal aid provided by the state;

- introducing diversion from criminal proceedings, the restorative justice approach and guarantees that pre-trial and trial detention and all forms of deprivation of liberty are measures of last resort and are implemented for the minimum period of time with regard to children in conflict with the law.

Strengthening the capacity of professionals

Introducing requirements for specialization for police officers, prosecutors, judges and lawyers working on matters involving children and developing training programmes and curricula for social workers, police officers, prosecutors, lawyers and judges. 

Strengthening the capacity of the Independents Human Rights Institutions to monitor child rights violations and ensure redress for violations of rights through trainings and exchange of experience. 

Communication for social change of attitudes regarding children in conflict with the law who need support and fair second chance

We work with media, professionals, young people and the general public to influence the discriminative attitudes, discourage stigmatization and create a social environment open to giving opportunities to young people for support, integration and positive change.


Convention on the Rights of the Child - General comment No. 10 (2007) Children’s rights in juvenile justice 

Convention on the Rights of the Child - General comment No. 12 (2009) The right of the child to be heard

Convention on the Rights of the Child - General comment No. 13 (2011) The right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence

Convention on the Rights of the Child - General comment No. 14 (2013) On the right of the child to have his or her best interests taken as a primary consideration (art. 3, para. 1)

Child victims of violence rarely have access to justice: UNICEF

Conference “Children in Conflict with the Law. Reform of the juvenile justice system in accordance with international standards and the best interest of children.”

Opening of specialized Child-friendly hearing facility in the town of Sliven

UNICEF Bulgaria opens a Youth Zone in the town of Sliven

Opening of Blue Room in Montana - Specialized Space for Hearing and Interrogation of Children

Justice still out of reach for millions of children

Regional Administration Sliven hosts a work meeting with UNICEF in support of children at risk

UNICEF and 4 Sliven Municipalities will work in cooperation to support children at risk, children in conflict with the law and their families

EU, UNICEF: Fewer children behind bars, greater reforms needed

Prominent French human rights advocate Robert Badinter Gave Recommendations on the Juvenile Justice Reform in Bulgaria

International Workshop “The Response of the justice system to children in conflict with the law: UN standards and European experience in juvenile justice”